ذهن آگاهی، زمان وفور اقتصادی و احساس مبتنی بر سفر: روابط کاوش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32418||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 15, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 196–205
Behavioral travel research has neglected to examine the role of mindfulness in the context of the work commute. Mindfulness is a psychological construct that has been associated with improvements to mental health, social engagement, and behavioral regulation. We examined ways in which users of different travel modes perceive their journey to work from an affective stance, their dispositional mindfulness, and time affluence. Using survey data from 786 university employees, we estimated a structural equation model capturing the direct and indirect relationships between mindfulness and the degree to which commuters find their work trip satisfying and peaceful (commute-related attunement), and related mediators. Bus users, walkers, and bicyclists reported significantly less stress than drivers. Walkers and bicyclists reported greater positive journey-based affect than drivers and bus users. Additionally, walkers and bus users maintained relatively greater perceptions of time affluence than drivers. Modeling results revealed that mindfulness directly, and operating through time affluence, competence, and stress, enhanced attunement to the commuting experience. The findings suggest that enhancing individual-level time affluence and sense of competence using non-motorized modes may encourage individuals to choose active transportation modes.
There is growing interest aimed at creating sustainable transportation systems that support physical activity, population health (Badland & Schofield, 2005), and environmental integrity (Abrahamse, Steg, Gifford, & Vlek, 2009). Understanding how users of different travel modes perceive their travel experiences may allow for more effective interventions. Examining affective evaluations and perception of the commuting experience is relevant because it facilitates general understanding of the cognitive mechanisms underlying travel decision-making (Gardner & Abraham, 2008). Studies investigating the role of self-reported affect in mode choice processes reveal that commuters value their perceived ability to maintain personal space and positive journey-based affect, and that these elements make driving comparably more attractive than using public transit (Mann & Abraham, 2006). Further, when people are asked why they use cars as opposed to alternative travel modes, they tend to reference the car’s relative instrumental advantages such as its reliability, convenience, and speed (Gardner & Abraham, 2007). Similarly, owning and operating a vehicle are positively associated with psychological needs of mastery and positive social identity (Ellaway, Macintyre, Hiscock, & Kearns, 2003). Individuals also express symbolic–affective motives for driving, such as the car’s capacity to express one’s social standing, and the pleasure of driving itself when research objectives of assessing underlying motives for car use are not evident (Steg, Vlek, & Slotegraaf, 2001). This is consistent with principles of the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), as it appears that affective appraisals of commuting can inform intentions about travel mode decisions, which can then influence mode choice behaviors. Even though there are apparent affective–symbolic advantages of car use, research on journey-based affect has demonstrated that drivers frequently report feeling stressed on their way to work (e.g., Evans and Wener, 2006, Hennessy and Wiesenthal, 1999 and Koslowsky et al., 1995). For example, as traffic congestion increases, so do reports of stress and agitation among drivers and users of public transit (Evans and Wener, 2006, Evans et al., 2002 and Hennessy and Wiesenthal, 1999). Commute-incited stress is a pertinent area of research focus, as it is associated with greater workplace hostility and obstructionism (Hennessy, 2008). Research on affective appraisals of commuting has facilitated understanding of the cognitive processes associated with travel mode choice and correlates of journey-based affect. Even so, such research has been limited to an examination of proximal work commute attributes such as traffic congestion, journey time considerations, delay, and inter-commuter conflict (Evans et al., 2002 and Gatersleben and Uzzell, 2007). However, it is likely that emotional and affective experiences of the commute are influenced by personal and environmental circumstances (Lively & Heise, 2004). Mindfulness is one such personal circumstance which enhances individuals’ mental health, positive social engagement, and adaptive behavioral regulation (Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007). Mindfulness is defined as a present-oriented, open, and nonjudgmental expression of conscious awareness (Brown and Ryan, 2003 and Kabat-Zinn, 2003). Unique among other theories of awareness such as self-concept (Buss, 1980 and Carver and Scheier, 1998) and integrative awareness (Ryan, 1995), mindfulness is associated with monitoring and observing moment-by-moment sensory and psychic events (Brown et al., 2007). Further, those who practice mindfulness remain detached from identity concerns, seeking instead to accept experiences as they arise (Brown, Ryan, Creswell, & Niemiec, 2008). Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that mindfulness is related to peaceful, restorative experiences within the context of the work commute, which can be labeled commute attunement. Mindful travelers are likely to “attune to” their commuting experience; for example, they report feeling relaxed and content while traveling to work and are more capable than less mindful travelers to cope with potential sources of commute-generated stress and agitation. Furthermore, mindful cognitive states coordinate and interact with other perceptions and needs (Brown & Ryan, 2003). Relevant here is recent research by Kasser and Sheldon (2009) which suggests that thoughts relating to feeling one has sufficient time to engage in activities that are personally meaningful and growth-promoting, can enhance the salutary effects of mindfulness. Such time-related perceptions represent a construct known as time affluence. Individuals with high degrees of time affluence report abilities to perform tasks in a leisurely manner and to deeply reflect upon life experiences. In addition to time affluence, mindful states have greater probability of expression when psychological needs such as competence, or feelings associated with performing activities with skill and aptitude, are satisfied (Kasser and Sheldon, 2009, Reis et al., 2000 and Sheldon et al., 2001). Therefore it is likely that greater levels of time affluence and competence are apt to facilitate increasingly robust expressions of mindfulness. Further, past work indicates that satisfaction across life domains is frequently fortified by greater levels of time affluence (Kasser & Sheldon, 2009), competence, and mindfulness (Ryan, Huta, & Deci, 2008). Despite the attention given to the affective experiences for car and bus users, there is a paucity of research examining the affective experience of pedestrians and bicyclists. This is important because affective information from pedestrian and bicycle commuters enhances our capacity to predict commuters’ mode choices and identify various users’ travel decision-making processes. A notable exception is Gatersleben and Uzzell (2007) who found that users of non-motorized commuting modes perceive their commute as more enjoyable and less stressful than those who drive or use public transit. In this study, we examined affective appraisals of non-motorized travelers and determine whether associations between mindfulness and commute attunement are partly mediated by time affluence and commute stress. Based on past research, we posit three hypotheses: • H1: Users of non-motorized commuting modes such as walking and bicycling report more positive journey-based affect (a composite construct consisting of competence, attunement, and stress) than individuals who typically drive or ride the bus to work. • H2: Non-motorized commuters have greater mindfulness and time affluence than drivers or bus users (Hypothesis 2). • H3: Mindfulness is associated with commute-related attunement, both directly and indirectly impact via time affluence, commute-related competence and stress. The next section of the paper reviews the methods. Then, results and a discussion are presented. Concluding remarks are provided at the end of the paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In keeping with the findings of Gatersleben and Uzzell (2007), the current study has demonstrated that from an affective perspective, non-motorized means of commuting are superior to car and bus commuting. Further, study results suggest that circumstantial factors such as sustaining a satisfactory level of time affluence and maintaining the capacity to activate mindful states of consciousness can enhance the work trip experience and motivate people to choose active commuting modes. Operating together, time affluence can provide for greater opportunities to select typically slower travel modes (e.g., walking and bicycling) and mindfulness can help make commuting decisions less prone to habitual responding and more open to consideration (Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2007). Recent research has advanced our knowledge about ways in which elements of the built environment support or impede physical activity and active transportation (Rodríguez et al., 2006 and Saelens and Handy, 2008). The findings presented here suggest that scientific inquiry should broaden its scope to include associations between individual-level circumstances, (e.g., time affluence), cognitive states (e.g., mindfulness) and environments, and how such relationships inform mode choice decision-making and journey-based experiences.