دیدگاه پس پروژه ای به عنوان کلید شایستگی مدیریت پروژه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3243||2008||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7750 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 28, Issue 10, October 2008, Pages 633–643
There is a general belief that post-project reviews are beneficial. However, such reviews are not conducted in a consistent manner, if at all, in many organizations. Therefore, there is a need to discuss post-project reviews as part of effective project management. This paper explores the nexus of knowledge management and project management. It addresses the role of post-project reviews and their impact on the success of future projects, improvement of the overall performance of the organization and its long-term competitive position, and development of its learning processes. It discusses critical aspects and useful techniques in the implementation of post-project reviews. The data gathered from post-project reviews provide the historical database from which future project teams can develop meaningful project plans based on their organization's project learning cycle. This database can provide project managers and teams with the information they need on specific staff skill set needs, and the profile of the customer and operating environment that can impact the ultimate success of projects and project management. The paper discusses where post-project reviews fit into the project life cycle and project management processes. It assesses how such reviews can assist an organization in improving the manner in which its projects are conceived, planned, implemented, reported, and evaluated.
This paper addresses and explores the linkage of knowledge management and project management in organizations. Specifically, it asks three core questions: What is the role of post-project reviews in projects? What is the contribution of post-project reviews to the development of new insights and project management knowledge in organizations? And, most importantly, what is the impact of such reviews on the emergence and development of learning processes within the organization and the ultimate improvement of overall organizational performance? To answers these questions, we need to discuss the content and purpose of the post-project review and its place in the project life cycle as an important component of advancing the organization's body of knowledge in project management and its effective implementation. In answering these questions, we discuss the nature of post-project reviews and where they fit into the project life cycle. We discuss the value of these reviews and how they can assist the organization in improving the manner in which its projects are conceived, planned, implemented, reported, and evaluated. Finally, we consider how post-project reviews might differ between knowledge-based, service-focused projects and other type of projects. We discuss post-project review as they relate to technical, financial, human resource, and project team organization requirements, as well as traditional versus virtual team composition requirements.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper highlights the strategic importance of post-project reviews as a vehicle for continual learning and improvement in organizations. It stresses that regular collection of lessons learned in projects, their careful storage in the organization's historical information database, and their meaningful utilization in subsequent projects are critical elements of project success and organizational competitiveness. This database is an essential resource from which future project teams can begin to put together a comprehensive project plan that addresses all project management knowledge areas. The database of project histories and lessons learned provides project managers with the information they need on specific staff skill set needs, specific staff members to recruit, profile of the customer, and the operating environment that can greatly impact the final success or failure of the project. The historical information and lessons learned can be extremely useful to the project team during various phases of the project life cycle. This information depends on the type of the project learning cycle used in the organization. The quality of project management needs to be evaluated as a function of both its quantitative and qualitative performance. Furthermore, the extent to which the secondary set of triple constraints (quality, risk, and customer expectations) is successfully managed greatly determines the extent to which the primary set of triple constraints (scope/specifications, time, and cost) is successfully managed. Cost overruns, schedule slippages, and project deliverables that are inconsistent with project specifications are symptoms of a failure by the project team to successfully deal with the secondary triple constraints of risk management, quality management, and customer expectations management. Visible involvement of senior executives in post-project reviews is essential to overcoming the reluctance to conducting these reviews and institutionalizing them as diagnostic-learning (rather than punitive) instruments aimed at enhancing the potential success of future projects and the performance of the organization. Senior executives need to explicitly stress the value of post-project reviews, particularly in failed projects, to the continual learning and improvement of organizational processes. Emphasis on learning from all projects in the organization encourages project team members to participate in post-project reviews in a meaningful way and helps develop a learning culture in the organization. The following research questions merit future research and study: (1) Who is best qualified to chair and moderate a post-project review: the project manager or a professional project review officer? (2) What metrics can be devised to calculate the cost-benefit ratio for conducting post-project reviews in terms of time and cost? (3) Is some form of a project office the optimum and definitive approach for leading the post-project review process? (4) What are the promising practices in motivating teams to share the lessons learned in their projects with others in the organization and encouraging new project teams to utilize the organization's existing lessons learned effectively? (5) What empirical data is needed to measure the return on investment in post-project reviews and dissemination of lessons learned throughout the organization?