کمال گرایی در کودکان: ارتباط همراه با افسردگی، اضطراب و خشم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32590||2002||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 32, Issue 6, 19 April 2002, Pages 1049–1061
The relationships among measures of dimensions of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, stress, and anger were investigated in 114 children (45 males and 69 females, aged 10–15 years). Based on previous research [e.g. Hewitt, P. L. & Flett, G. L. (1993). Dimensions of perfectionism, daily stress, and depression: a test of the specific vulnerability hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 58–65], self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism were hypothesized to interact with either achievement stress or social stress to predict concurrent depression. Participants completed the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised, Children's Hassles Scale, and Pediatric Anger Expression Scale. Results revealed that self-oriented perfectionism was significantly associated with depression and anxiety, whereas socially prescribed perfectionism was significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, social stress, anger-suppression, and outwardly directed anger. Findings also indicated that: (1) self-oriented perfectionism interacted with social stress to predict anxiety; and that (2) self-oriented perfectionism interacted with achievement stress and with social stress to predict depression. Results suggest that dimensions of perfectionism may be relevant variables in, and differential predictors of, maladjustment and distress in children.
Contemporary researchers have focused increasingly on predicting, identifying, and understanding psychological difficulties in children.1 Numerous studies have demonstrated the pervasiveness and destructiveness of maladjustment in such populations. Although research has examined predictors of psychopathology in children, relatively few investigations have considered personality factors (Shiner, 1998) and their associations with maladjustment and distress in such groups (Boggiano & Barrett, 1992; for examples of variables studied, see Robinson et al., 1995 and Whisman & Pinto, 1997). One personality variable that has become the focus of research in adults, and more recently in children, is perfectionism (see Flett et al., 2001 and Hewitt et al., 1997). We (Hewitt & Flett, 1991a) described perfectionism as multidimensional (also see Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990) and as encompassing both intra-individual and interpersonal trait components. The three major traits of perfectionism we conceptualized are: (1) self-oriented perfectionism, which involves requirements for the self to be perfect; (2) other-oriented perfectionism, which involves requirements for others to be perfect; and (3) socially prescribed perfectionism, which involves perceptions that others require the self to be perfect. We have also suggested that these trait dimensions are differentially associated with psychopathology, and research is generally supportive of this position (for a review, see Hewitt & Flett, 2001). Although prior research has indicated that dimensions of perfectionism are related to various types of maladjustment (see Flett & Hewitt, 2001), most of this research has involved adult psychiatric patients and university students. We have recently developed the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett et al., 2000). Modeled after the adult version (MPS; Hewitt & Flett, 1991b), the CAPS measures self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, but in terms relevant to children. Although empirical research on the impact of perfectionism on children has just begun, studies have suggested that dimensions of perfectionism are relevant variables in, and differential predictors of, maladjustment and distress in children. For instance, two relevant studies using the CAPS have focused on suicide ideation and behaviours in adolescents and, consistent with adult research, these studies suggest that socially prescribed perfectionism is a significant predictor of suicide behaviours. More specifically, in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients, Hewitt et al. (1997) found that self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were both associated with hopelessness, whereas only socially prescribed perfectionism was uniquely associated with suicide ideation. Similarly, in a sample of adolescent suicide attempters, Boergers, Spirito, and Donaldson (1998) found that socially prescribed perfectionism discriminated between attempters with a high intent to die and attempters with no intent to die.2 Although the above-mentioned studies indicate that perfectionism can contribute to childhood maladjustment, there are no existing studies that have looked at dimensions of perfectionism and distress more broadly in a community sample of children. One purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism, as assessed by the CAPS, and various forms of emotional distress such as depression, anxiety, anger, and stress in such a sample. These forms of maladjustment have been shown to be problematic in such populations and, as indicated above, have increasingly been the focus of research (e.g. Eisenberg, Fabes, Shepard, Guthrie, Murphey, & Reiser, 1999). Moreover, each of these constructs has been found to be associated with various dimensions of perfectionism in adults, suggesting the possibility that perfectionistic behaviours may be important in producing these types of emotional difficulties. The links between both self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and depression-related phenomena have been described above, but there has been little research on perfectionism and anxiety and anger in children. Boergers et al. (1998) examined perfectionism and anger in a study of suicide attempters and found that adolescents who wished to die were characterized jointly by socially prescribed perfectionism and anger; however, these authors did not report the association between perfectionism and anger in their study. Additionally, evidence of a link between dimensions of perfectionism and anxiety has been provided by research on adults (e.g. Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & Mosher, 1995), although other studies suggest that socially prescribed perfectionism is the only trait dimension associated with anxiety symptoms (Antony et al., 1998 and Hewitt & Flett, 1991b). Finally, in adults, anger and hostility have been associated with both self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett, 1991a and Hill et al., 1997). In addition to demonstrating associations between dimensions of perfectionism and anger in this study, we were interested in examining how perfectionism may be associated with depression symptoms. Hewitt and Flett (1993) indicated that dimensions of perfectionism can act as vulnerability factors in depression by enhancing the aversiveness of experienced stress. We suggested that in the presence of specific or congruent stress, dimensions of perfectionism are associated with increased severity of depression symptoms. In three studies assessing this association, it was found that self-oriented perfectionism consistently interacted only with self-related/achievement stress to predict increased depression in clinical and nonclinical samples both concurrently (Hewitt & Flett, 1993, Studies 1 and 2) and over time (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1996). Based on these findings, we have argued that self-oriented perfectionism may confer a vulnerability to depression and that the depression symptoms will only become elevated or severe in the presence of self-related stressors or failures. Socially prescribed perfectionism, on the other hand, has been shown to interact only with social stressors in predicting depression in a clinically depressed sample (Hewitt & Flett, 1993), but the findings are not consistently evident in other samples (Hewitt & Flett, 1993 and Hewitt et al., 1996). However, the results do indicate clearly that socially prescribed perfectionism is best conceptualized as a concomitant of depression in adults and that it may interact with various stressors in predicting depression severity (Hewitt & Flett, 1993, Hewitt et al., 1998 and Joiner & Schmidt, 1995). The above research suggests that dimensions of perfectionism play different roles in predicting depression; however, the extant research has used only adult samples. Children, as mentioned above, also show relationships between dimensions of perfectionism and distress, and it may be that the different dimensions of perfectionism influence youth depression in a similar manner. Furthermore, there is an extensive literature indicating a link between stress and depression in children (e.g. Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 1992 and Rudolph & Hammen, 1999). It is possible that several factors moderate this association, and perfectionism may play an important role (Robinson et al., 1995). There is no research specifically dealing with dimensions of perfectionism, stress, and depression in children; however, Roberts and Lovett (1994) provided indirect evidence of how perfectionistic children respond to achievement stress when they examined physiological and affective responses to achievement failure in an experimental study that used a mixed sample of 20 academically gifted students, 20 academic achievers, and 20 non-gifted students along with measures of perfectionism. The authors did not report the association between perfectionism and distress in response to failure; however, their pattern of findings indicated that the participants were high in self-oriented perfectionism and that they tended to have more negative affective reactions and greater physiological stress reactions after experiencing failure on an anagram task. These findings point to the possibility that children who are high on self-oriented perfectionism and experience achievement setbacks will experience increased distress. Thus, another purpose of this project was to assess whether dimensions of perfectionism interact with specific stressors in predicting the severity of depression. The issue of specificity is a central theme when examining correlates of distress in children, with research often showing that the findings involving depression generalize to anxiety and externalizing problems (Weiss & Catron, 1994). The specificity issue was examined here, not only in terms of the correlations between perfectionism and distress, but also in terms of the extent to which perfectionism combines with achievement and social stress to predict levels of depression, anxiety, and specific facets of anger. Moreover, we assessed whether age might influence levels of reported maladjustment. Finally, the use of specific stress measures (i.e. self-related/achievement vs social stress) allows us to assess a component of the general model of perfectionism and maladjustment outlined by Hewitt and Flett (2001). This model suggests that perfectionism influences the experience and response to stressors both directly and indirectly. Individuals with excessive levels of the different dimensions can generate, anticipate, maintain, and enhance the aversiveness of stressful events or failures as a function of their perfectionistic behaviours. For example, perfectionistic behaviours can generate stress that stems, in part, from the tendency for perfectionists to stringently evaluate, focus on negative aspects of performance, and experience little satisfaction. We have shown in one study that self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism are associated with rates of achievement and social life stress events in adults, providing some support for this model (Hewitt & Flett, 1993). In the present study, we wished to assess the relationships among dimensions of perfectionism, and achievement and social stress.