کمال گرایی پدر و مادری و نقش اولیاء
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32602||2005||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4714 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 39, Issue 3, August 2005, Pages 613–624
The purpose of the present research was to provide evidence for the validity of the Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ), an objective self-report instrument designed to measure multiple aspects of parenting perfectionism. Data from two separate samples provided evidence that the MPPQ parenting perfectionism tendencies were systematically related to parenting styles, parenting satisfaction, parental bonding, and attachment tendencies. The discussion focuses on the implications of these research findings and future directions for research with the Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire.
Research studies have consistently produced evidence of a multidimensional structure underlying perfectionistic tendencies (cf. Frost et al., 1993, Frost et al., 1990 and Hewitt and Flett, 1989). Hewitt and Flett (1989), for example, reported evidence that perfectionism consists of at least three components involving excessively high self-imposed standards, demands from important others (especially important parental figures), and expectations for perfectionistic behavior in others. Frost et al. (1990) also took a multidimensional approach to perfectionism and identified perfectionistic dimensions focusing on high self-standards, preferences for order and organization, concerns about parenting mistakes, doubts about one’s performance, and both high expectations and excessive criticism from one’s parents. As Flett, Hewitt, and Singer (1995) and Frost, Lahart, and Rosenblate (1991) have noted, perfectionism has been largely ignored in the parenting literature, even though some aspects of parental authority described by Baumrind, 1971 and Baumrind, 1977 have perfectionistic overtones. In light of this consideration, Snell, Overbey, and Brewer (submitted) have recently applied a multidimensional perfectionism approach to the concept of parenting by constructing the Multidimensional Parenting Perfectionism Questionnaire (MPPQ). The goal of the present study was to examine the validity of the MPPQ with regard to the parenting role. There is ample evidence indicating that the parental role is influential in the social, personal, and individual development of people’s children (Collins & Kuczaj, 1991). This literature suggests that at least three parenting concepts may be theoretically linked to parenting perfectionism–parenting styles, parenting satisfaction, and parental bonding/attachment. 1.1. Parenting styles Baumrind, 1971 and Baumrind, 1977 defined three styles of parenting behavior that primary caregivers use to interact with their children. The authoritarian parenting style is characterized by harshness and expectations for strict obedience to parental rules (Clarke-Stewart and Apfel, 1979 and Lamborn et al., 1991). Permissive parents are warm and responsive, yet rarely make or enforce rules to guide the behavior of children (Baumrind, 1971). By contrast, the authoritative parenting style incorporates greater warmth and responsiveness to children as well as higher goal setting and expectations (Baumrind, 1971). An important research issue for the parenting literature is whether perfectionistic parenting tendencies are related to one’s own parenting style and/or the parenting styles experienced in one’s family of origin. 1.2. Parenting satisfaction Parenting perfectionism may also influence people’s current level of satisfaction with their parenting behavior. Parenting satisfaction itself involves an overall global assessment of the qualitative features of one’s parenting behaviors. By examining the relationship between parenting perfectionism and parent satisfaction, the present research provided the opportunity to determine whether particular parenting perfectionism tendencies might be associated with parent satisfaction. 1.3. Parental bonding/attachment Parents and their infants develop strong emotional bonds which foster the development of healthy social and emotional relationships and adaptive cognitive abilities (Matas, Arend, & Sroufe, 1978). Two major aspects of parental rearing behavior have been identified in the parent–child literature: (1) care, which may promote bonding, and (2) (over)-protection, which can potentially interfere with bonding (Arrindell et al., 1998, Arrindell et al., 1989 and Parker et al., 1979). Bonding is thought to promote attachment, which results in strong emotional ties between caregiver and child that develop through the repeated emotional interactions occurring within an enduring relationship (Ainsworth et al., 1978 and Bowlby, 1969). Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) have recently argued that one’s current adult attachments may be influenced by the nature of the parent–child attachment experienced in the family of origin. The present research provided the opportunity to assess whether parenting perfectionism might be associated with either parental bonding and/or parental attachment.