کمال گرایی و فرسودگی شغلی در بازیکنان نخبه فوتبال تازه وارد: نفوذ واسطه ای بی قید و شرط خودپذیرشی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32614||2008||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7830 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Volume 9, Issue 5, September 2008, Pages 630–644
Objectives It has been argued that elite junior athletes may be especially vulnerable to the development of burnout [Coakley, D. (1992). Burnout among adolescent athletes: A personal failure or social problem. Sociology, 9, 271–285; Feigley, D. A. (1984). Psychological burnout in high-level athletes. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 12, 108–119; Raedeke, T. D. (1997). Is athlete burnout more than just stress? A sport commitment perspective. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19, 396–418]. Few studies to date have examined the psychological mechanisms that may underpin this vulnerability. One exception was a study by Gould, Tuffrey, Udry, and Loehr [(1996). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment. The Sport Psychologist, 10, 332–340], which found that a form of perfectionism reflecting a preoccupation with avoiding mistakes differentiated between burnout and non-burnout tennis players. The first purpose of the present investigation was to extend this research and examine the influence of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism on burnout in elite junior soccer players. A second purpose was to examine whether the association between perfectionism and burnout was mediated by unconditional self-acceptance.
With increasing funding from television revenue and the Football Association's commitment to talent development, soccer academies have proliferated in the UK. The principal aim of these establishments is the development of professional players from cohorts of young athletes recruited on the basis of early promise. However, because few ever obtain professional status, and those who fall short are systematically moved on, academy athletes are under substantial pressure to achieve. Rather than creating an environment in which athletic development is nurtured, it is likely that achievement striving in such pressured conditions contributes to the development of burnout in some athletes (see Jackson, 2007; Roderick, 2006). Examination of burnout in this context is warranted not only because of the financial costs associated with sporting attrition, but also because burnout has important consequences for athletes’ psychological well-being (Raedeke, 1997; Smith, 1986). Although it has been argued that young athletes who are striving to achieve at an elite level may be particularly susceptible to the physical and psychological consequences of burnout (Coakley, 1992; Feigley, 1984; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996; Raedeke, 1997), to date there has been little empirical research to test this contention (Cresswell & Eklund (2006a) and Cresswell & Eklund (2006b)). The paucity of research on burnout within sport settings has been the result of early conceptual and psychometric shortcomings (Cresswell & Eklund (2006a) and Cresswell & Eklund (2006b)). However, recent work by Raedeke and Smith (2001) has not only resolved the definitional problems which impeded research progress, but it has also provided researchers with an established instrument that can be employed to advance our understanding of the burnout process. Based on the work of Maslach and Jackson (1981), Raedeke (1997) proposed that burnout should be considered a syndrome of physical and emotional exhaustion, reduced sense of athletic accomplishment and sport devaluation. Utilising a valid and reliable measure of these symptoms, and informed by contemporary psychological theory (e.g. Coakley, 1992; Cresswell & Eklund (2006a) and Cresswell & Eklund (2006b); Gould, 1996; Raedeke, 1997; Raedeke & Smith, 2004; Smith, 1986), research has begun to identify some of the critical antecedents of the syndrome. Much of this work has been guided by Smith's (1986) cognitive–affective model, which has received considerable empirical support in the context of sport (e.g. Gould, 1996; Kelley, Erklund, & Ritter-Taylor, 1999; Raedeke & Smith, 2004; Vealey, Armstrong, Comar, & Greenleaf, 1998). According to Smith (1986), athlete burnout develops as a result of chronic stress brought about by regularly appraising ones resources as insufficient to meet achievement demands. Within elite sport contexts, the process of striving to achieve ever increasing demands may become a contributory mechanism in the development of burnout when athletes perceive that performance is consistently falling short of acceptable standards (Cresswell & Eklund (2006a) and Cresswell & Eklund (2006b)). Under these circumstances the demands of the sporting context may pose more than a challenge, and thus, individuals begin to appraise achievement striving as a threat to self-worth. This process leads to considerable disaffection as investment in both practice and competition becomes psychologically aversive (Smith, 1986). If this process goes unabated, it precipitates a gradual shift from an intense desire to succeed, and a behavioural commitment to sporting excellence, to a pattern of physical, cognitive and emotional disengagement reflective of burnout (Cresswell & Eklund (2006a) and Cresswell & Eklund (2006b)). Perfectionism as an antecedent of athlete burnout Research based on Smith's (1986) model has emphasised the importance of personality factors that impact central appraisal processes and render individuals vulnerable to the experience of threat and anxiety (e.g. Kelley, 1994; Kelley & Gill, 1993; Kelley et al., 1999). One personality factor found to impact the appraisal process (Hall, Kerr, & Matthews, 1998), and implicated in the development of burnout, is perfectionism (Flett & Hewitt, 2005; Gould et al., 1996; Hall, 2006; Lemyre, Hall, & Roberts, 2007). While there is no agreed definition of perfectionism, it is broadly considered to be an achievement related personality characteristic that reflects the compulsive pursuit of excessively high standards and a tendency to engage in harsh, overly critical self-evaluation (Burns, 1980; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990; Hewitt & Flett, 1991; Pacht, 1984). Although some researchers argue that perfectionism is ultimately a debilitating characteristic (Flett and Hewitt, 2002; Greenspon, 2000), others contend that in the absence of negative criticism, perfectionism has beneficial motivational qualities that give rise to adaptive achievement striving and a healthy pursuit of excellence (Haase & Prapavessis, 2004; Stoeber & Otto, 2006; Terry-Short, Owens, Slade, & Dewey, 1995). For example, Stoeber and colleagues (Stoeber & Becker, in press; Stoeber, & Kersting, 2007; Stoeber, Otto, Pescheck, Becker, & Stoll, 2007; Stoeber, Stoll, Pescheck, & Otto, in press) have found that striving for perfection in the absence of negative performance appraisal, leads to adaptive patterns of achievement cognition, affect and behaviour. While this, and other evidence, suggests that both adaptive and maladaptive forms of perfectionism may serve to energise achievement striving in athletes (Flett & Hewitt, 2002; Frost et al., 1990; Hamachek, 1978; Slaney, Ashby, & Trippi, 1995; Stoeber & Otto, 2006), the prevailing view is that the act of striving for perfection does not, in itself, lead to debilitation (Flett & Hewitt, 2002; Hall, 2006; Stoeber & Otto, 2006). Rather, it is when perfectionism evokes harsh self-criticism, a ruminative response style and a focus upon personal and interpersonal inadequacies that motivational debilitation is engendered (Flett & Hewitt, 2006; Flett, Madorsky, Hewitt, & Heisel, 2002; Thompson & Zuroff, 2004). Moreover, when these processes are employed consistently in the evaluation of achievement outcomes, athletes may become vulnerable to burnout. Instead of facilitating athletic development and elite performance (Anshel & Eom, 2002; Gould, Dieffenbach, & Moffett, 2002), these processes underpin self-defeating and debilitating patterns of cognition and emotion and may undermine performance and diminish psychological well-being (see Hall, 2006, for a review). For example, research indicates that when perfectionistic striving is accompanied by negative evaluative concerns and self-criticism it is a significant predictor of elevated levels of negative affect in the form of social physique anxiety (Hall, Kerr, & Wigmore, 1999), anger (Dunn, Gotwals, Causgrove Dunn, & Syrotuik, 2006), pre-competitive anxiety (Frost & Henderson, 1991; Hall et al., 1998; Koivula, Hassmen, & Fallby, 2002), and debilitating performance anxiety (Mor, Day, Flett, & Hewitt, 1995; Stoeber et al., 2007). While there has been little empirical examination of the relationship between perfectionism and athlete burnout, current findings suggest that specific maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism appear to be the critical antecedents of the syndrome (Gould et al., 1996; Lemyre et al., 2007). However, this research has relied exclusively on a measure of perfectionism developed by Frost and colleagues (FMPS; Frost et al., 1990). This instrument has attracted recent criticism for containing both antecedents and consequences of the disposition making interpretation of the scale difficult (Rheaume et al., 2000). Furthermore, the scale has prompted the use of single scale scores as evidence for perfectionism often in the absence of concern about mistakes, which is considered to be a fundamental component of the construct (e.g. Chang, Watkins, & Banks, 2004). To overcome these criticisms, recent sport related research has begun to utilise an instrument devised by Hewitt and Flett (1991) which assesses three maladaptive forms of perfectionism; socially prescribed perfectionism, self-oriented perfectionism, and other oriented perfectionism (e.g. Hall et al., 1999; Mor et al., 1995). This scale has the advantage of incorporating into the measurement of the construct the motivation that underpins perfectionistic striving, as well as an individual's personal or interpersonal focus (Hewitt & Flett (1991) and Hewitt & Flett (1993)). Self-oriented perfectionism, for example, is characterised by the pursuit of excessively high standards, accompanied by harsh, and potentially debilitating, self-criticism. Socially prescribed perfectionism, in contrast, involves the perception that significant others impose unrealistic standards on the self, that attempts at goal attainment are evaluated stringently, and that by meeting these standards the approval of significant others can be obtained. Finally, other oriented perfectionism is characterised by the tendency to impose unrealistic expectations on others (Hewitt & Flett, 1991). All three types of perfectionism are associated with distinct patterns of debilitating, and at times pathological, personal and interpersonal focused cognitions, emotions and behaviours (see Flett & Hewitt (2002) and Flett & Hewitt (2006); Flett, Hewitt, & Blankstein, 1991). It might be argued, however, that the two dimensions associated with self-focused cognitions would contribute most to the prediction of athlete burnout; self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. While these dimensions have received little attention in sport and exercise settings, empirical examination of their consequences in other achievement contexts has been relatively consistent. Socially prescribed perfectionism is regarded as a uniformly debilitating disposition, associated with fear of negative evaluation, self-criticism, self-blame, anxiety, and over-generalisation of failure (Flett et al., 1991). Self-oriented perfectionism, on the other hand, is considered to be a vulnerability factor that predisposes individuals to the experience of depression, anxiety and neuroticism through its interaction with third order variables. For example, the experience of stressors (Hewitt & Flett, 1993), perceptions of failure (Flett, Besser, Davis, & Hewitt, 2003; Flett, Hewitt, Oliver, & Macdonald, 2002) and negative feedback (Besser, Hewitt, & Flett, 2004) have been found to moderate the effects of the disposition. It is important to note, however, that in the absence of perceived achievement difficulties, there is also evidence that self-oriented perfectionism has the potential to lead to positive motivational consequences. For example, within student samples, self-oriented perfectionism is associated with resourcefulness (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, & O’Brien, 1991), intrinsic motivation and achievement striving (Mills & Blankstein, 2000). Although socially prescribed and self-oriented perfectionism are considered to be underpinned by different motivational processes (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) both forms of the disposition have the potential to render athletes vulnerable to the development of the burnout syndrome. In the case of socially prescribed perfectionists, self-worth is directly contingent on the attainment of external standards perceived to be imposed by significant others. Research conducted by Frost and Henderson (1991), and later by Hall et al. (1998) has demonstrated that a combination of external standards and a preoccupation with self-definition amongst perfectionists underpins the development of maladaptive achievement-related cognitions and elevated levels of cognitive anxiety at various points in the performance process. Therefore, while participation provides an opportunity to validate a sense of self, because these individuals frequently perceive that they fall short of these standards, it is likely to be accompanied by chronic exposure to threat and anxiety. Entrapped by a desire to validate a sense of self, socially prescribed perfectionists are likely to continue to participate long after their experience has become psychologically draining, and it is for this reason that socially prescribed perfectionism will be positively associated with athlete burnout. The association between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout may be considered less perspicuous. While the standards endorsed by self-oriented perfectionists are exceedingly high, they are self-imposed. Consequently, self-oriented perfectionists perceive a greater degree of control over attainment and, as a result, are less likely to appraise standards as overwhelming. This means that in the absence of self-critical and self-evaluative concerns self-oriented perfectionism may be associated with adaptive achievement striving (see Dunkley & Blankstein, 2000; Dunkley, Zuroff, & Blankstein, 2003). However, Flett and Hewitt (2006) have argued that the stringent evaluation of achievement striving which is exhibited by self-oriented perfectionists often undermines perceptions of success. Further, it is in response to perceived failures to meet excessively high self-set standards that these athletes begin to engage in harsh self-criticism. In this instance, this is likely to intensify the threat associated with future failure and make achievement contexts more aversive. If this pattern of self-blame and self-criticism continues, the experience of existential threat and anxiety are likely to develop into chronic levels and may potentially lead to the development of burnout. Based upon this conceptual argument, the first purpose of the current study was to test the assertion that both socially prescribed and self-oriented perfectionism would have a positive association with the three dimensions of athlete burnout. However, as any debilitating impact of self-oriented perfectionism may be contingent on the perceived achievement of the athletes, perceived satisfaction towards goal progress was assessed. The mediating influence of unconditional self-acceptance While the preceding theoretical argument indicates that maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism may render athletes vulnerable to experiencing burnout, a number of researchers have argued that third-order variables that influence the overall appraisal of the sporting environment are likely to be important in determining the effects of perfectionism (Flett & Hewitt, 2005; Hall, 2006). One particular variable that may be especially influential is unconditional self-acceptance. This is an adaptive acceptance of one's self regardless of the approval, respect or love received from other people (Lundh, 2004). Greenspon (2000) has argued that feelings of conditional self-acceptance are central to both the etiology and maintenance of dispositional perfectionism. Campbell and DiPaula (2002) have further suggested that a sense of conditional acceptance may be almost exclusively responsible for the deleterious consequences of perfectionism. Support for this assertion has been provided by DiBartolo, Frost, Chang, LaSota, and Grills (2004) who found that the pursuit of perfectionistic personal standards only leads to distress when their attainment is required in order to experience feelings of self-worth. Further research examining the relationship between self-acceptance and self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism has also indicated that both perfectionism dimensions are inversely related to feelings of self-acceptance (Flett, Russo, & Hewitt, 1994), and that unconditional self-acceptance mediates between perfectionism and depression (Flett et al., 2003). Consequently, it may be the pursuit of conditional self-acceptance that predisposes both self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionists to the experience of athlete burnout. This is because self-worth is rendered vulnerable when negative patterns of cognition and affect result from perceived failure to meet excessively high standards (see Frost & Henderson, 1991; Hall et al., 1998). When self-worth is based on attainment, failure to achieve personally meaningful standards undermines an athlete's sense of self ( Hall, 2006). This heightens burnout symptoms in self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionists because the protection of self-worth through withdrawal from sport is not an option. Specifically, both Coakley (1992) and Raedeke and Smith (2001) have argued that when self-worth is contingent on achievement, dropping out is unlikely because participation is a significant source of identity and emotional security. According to these authors, it is a sense of entrapment that sustains participation long after it has become a pervasive source of stress. Over time, then, the experience of these debilitating patterns of cognition and emotion are likely to exacerbate symptoms of burnout. Consequently, a second purpose of the present investigation was to investigate the process outlined, and test the contention that unconditional self-acceptance would mediate the relationships between both forms of perfectionism and the three dimensions of athlete burnout ( Fig. 1).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
These limitations aside, the findings of the present study clearly add to the body of knowledge examining burnout and dimensions of perfectionism in a sport setting. In particular, the current findings provide support for suggestions that negative dimensions of perfectionism may be critical antecedents of athlete burnout (Gould et al., 1996), and that both self-oriented and socially prescribed forms of perfectionism have the potential to render young athletes vulnerable to its development (Flett & Hewitt, 2005). It also poses some interesting questions regarding the nature of self-oriented perfectionism and its relationship with burnout that warrant further examination in a sport context. The current study has attempted to build on previous research and begin to examine some of the key psychological processes that may explain the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and burnout. While the results indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had a direct positive association and self-oriented perfectionism a direct negative association with burnout, a conditional sense of self-acceptance emerged as a partial mediator of the perfectionism–burnout relationship. This suggests that the pursuit of conditional self-acceptance may be a critical psychological process that leads to the development of symptoms of burnout in athletes when they exhibit either socially prescribed or self-oriented perfectionism.