سیستم دستمزد تشویقی برای مدیریت پروژه بر اساس ماتریس تخصیص مسئولیت و متغیرهای زبانی فازی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3282||2009||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 36, Issue 10, December 2009, Pages 12585–12591
Project management is a discipline that is receiving continuous attention. Managing people effectively has significant impact on the outcome of a project. An effective incentive system helps the organization achieve its goals while meeting the personal needs of participants. The present study proposes a novel incentive pay system for project management based on responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) and fuzzy linguistic variables. It adopts the structure of RAM to model each team member’s responsibility and performance, which are then evaluated by fuzzy linguistic variables. Four models are proposed for variant project management circumstances. When tested in a realistic application, the resultant feedback was supportive, with it beings perceived to be more fair and timely when compared to a conventional incentive pay system. Its implementation is efficient; and its results are effective.
Project management is a discipline that receives continuous attention from the academic community as well as business practitioners. This trend can be derived from ever-increasing publications and size of the associated professional society (Cleland and Ireland, 2004 and PMI, 2004). In the past decade, there has been a steady increase in the number of modern enterprises adopting project management to secure competitive advantage. For many firms, projects have become the central way that work is accomplished. The consequence is a widespread commitment to improvement initiatives that include the establishment of an enterprise project management process, the development of a career path for project managers, the implementation of project management education and training programs, and investment in project management tools and information systems (Grant & Pennypacker, 2006). With regard to achieving project success, historically, management of projects was as technical systems instead of behavioral structure. That is, there has been a tendency to use a mechanistic approach focusing on results, with the main objective of attaining target dates, achieving financial plans and controlling the quality of the final product (McCollum & Sherman, 1991). Managing people effectively can have a significant impact on the results of a project since most major project failures are related to social issues. The more managers believe rewards like pay, promotion, and respect from others stem from good performance the more likely they are to be rated as good performers by their peers, superiors, and selves (Lawler & Porter, 1967). Thus, management actions should be supportive of the measurement system by providing rewards when the targets have been achieved. In addition, the achievement of the targets should support the organization’s strategy and achievement of the company goals (Hanna, Burns, & Backhouse, 2000). An effective incentive pay system helps the organization achieve its goals whilst meeting the personal needs of participants (Anthony, 1981). Incentive pay plans attempt to relate reward (or bonus) rapidly and directly for above-average performance. There are two basic requirements for an effective incentive plan. The first concerns the procedures and methods used to appraise employee performance. The second requirement is that the rewards must be based on performance (Byars & Rue, 2006). According to PMBOK®PMBOK® (PMI, 2004), a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or to gain results. It is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. Different process groups may have different staff from the project team. A project is often executed using diverse and limited company resources. A conventional incentive pay system may not be a viable mechanism for project management. First, the project team is a temporary organization and the product (or end-goal) is unique. The project team is formed at the start of the project and then is dismissed at the completion. For the instance of a matrix organization, the most commonly used organization; the team may include full-time or part-time staff from different functional departments. A conventional incentive system, invariably evaluated by fixed-time interval, such as annual or quarterly evaluation, cannot provide responsive incentives to motivate the project team. Second, a project manger’s role as a supervisor is temporary. For the majority of incentive systems, the departmental manger is the supervisor who evaluates an individual’s performance. This procedure is not adequate, however, for a project-based organization. Finally, the responsibilities and performances of project team members may vary greatly for the different project process groups and/or different assignments. An effective incentive system for a project, on the other hand, should be able to accommodate the differences in responsibilities and performances among the project team members. In consideration of the deficiencies of a conventional incentive pay system for projects, the present study proposes a novel incentive pay system for project management. It considers both the responsibilities and performances as the criteria of reward. The responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is adapted to identify the difference in responsibilities among project team members. An individual’s performance, in this instance, requires evaluation using both crisp values and fuzzy linguistic variables. While there is a significant amount of literature devoted to the discussion of incentive systems, we are not aware of any particular literature that focuses on addressing incentive pay systems for project management. Specifically, the proposed incentive pay system has the following characteristics. (i) It can account for participations from the five project process groups. (ii) It can consider the different weighting (or impacts to project success) for the five project process groups. (iii) For each process group, it can evaluate the differences in responsibilities among project team members. (iv) For each process group, it can evaluate individual’s performance for his/her assigned task using either crisp or fuzzy numbers. The present study presents four models. The first model (Model 1 hereafter) only considers the responsibility evaluation as criterion of the rewards, and uses crisp numbers for the evaluation. The second model (Model 2 hereafter) uses fuzzy numbers in lieu of crisp numbers in contrast to Model 1. Model 2 also evaluates an individual’s responsibilities for the five project process groups. The weights of the five process groups are assumed to be the same. The third model (Model 3 hereafter) adds the performance evaluation to each individual for his/her assigned task. Based on Model 3, the last model (Model 4 hereafter) considers the different weights among the five process groups. The differences among these models are summarized in Table 1. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents a review of pertinent literature. Section 3 provides a detailed discussion on the proposed methodology. Empirical results are shown as Section 4. Conclusions and future research opportunities are contained in Section 5.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conventional incentive pay systems have inherent drawbacks when applied to projects. The present study proposes a novel incentive pay system for project management. It differentiates individuals’ responsibilities, performances, and participation during the course of a project, and evaluates each team member’s incentive. The proposed incentive pay system represents an integrated use of RAM, fuzzy linguistic variables, and five project management process groups. It has been applied to a practical case application. The feedback indicates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The proposed incentive system has been successfully applied to an individual-based project, but the system can also be applied to group-based, organization-based, or a mixed form. In this instance, we would replace the individual’s responsibility and performance by a group’s responsibility and performance. Since financial reward is not the sole incentive, the present study may extend monetary rewards to other intrinsic and extrinsic ones. Furthermore, the proposed system should be part of an organizational reward system to ensure that the success of a project and also the organizational performance is enhanced. This becomes affords several future research opportunities. In addition, the fair evaluation of responsibilities and performances is a priori to assure the success of an incentive system. Thus, future research may further investigate appropriate decision-support tools to facilitate the evaluation process. For instance, a surrogate function for several project objectives may be a viable approach for performance evaluation.