صلاحیت اتمام وظیفه و عملکرد مدیریت پروژه : تاثیر کنترل و مشارکت کاربر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3287||2010||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5110 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 28, Issue 3, April 2010, Pages 220–227
Recent research examines the relationship between competency and success in the information systems project environment. The links, however, are not well established and the antecedents of competency not well explored. We model the link between general task completion competency and performance of development teams with two crucial antecedents built by other stakeholders, the contribution of users and controls established by management. A sample of information systems professionals confirms the model and places a focus on the competencies of the professionals involved in a development. Management must be aware of team level controls and the competencies within a team and not focus on the individual members of a system development team.
Organizations frequently adopt project teams for information systems (IS) implementation in order to accomplish the necessary tasks. Still, organizations are just beginning to understand the complexity of factors that influence project management performance (Subramanian et al., 2007). Aladwani (2002) proposed an integrated model for IS project management performance by synthesizing the literature on software project management. He argues that certain project environmental attributes (e.g., support technologies, project-team size, clear goals, expertise of staff, and management advocacy) are necessary factors for problem solving ability, which in turn represent necessary conditions to secure a more successful implementation. The focus of the model is on the mediator variable of task completion competency – which is associated with process characteristics of the project team. The implication is that management and researchers should focus on the antecedent variables to facilitate process so that outcomes are improved. One likely facilitator frequently mentioned in the IS literature is user contribution (Nelson and Cooprider, 1996, Barki and Hartwick, 1994, Alter, 1979, Wang et al., 2006 and Subramanian et al., 2007). From another research perspective, the project management literature views management controls to be crucial to success (Henderson and Lee, 1992, Lee et al., 1995a and Lee et al., 1995b). Each of these factors from the different literatures has ample theory backing their importance, but the empirical results linking them directly to success is mixed (Leung, 2001, Beath and Orlikowski, 1994, Andres and Zmud, 2002, Ives and Olson, 1984 and Kirsch and Beath, 1996). Using the model of Aladwani (2002), a mediating variable that is a good predictor of success might better serve to explain the relationship between the factor variables and eventual project success. One process factor believed to promote success is a team’s innate ability to complete tasks (Aladwani, 2002). For example, a key success factor for software development projects is not the tools or techniques traditionally emphasized in project management and software engineering, but the cumulative competences of the software development team (Rose et al., 2007). Learning and control theories lead one to expect that the task completion process will be enhanced by management controls over processes and the contributions to learning made by the users (Nelson and Cooprider, 1996 and Henderson and Lee, 1992). The purpose of this study is, therefore, to empirically examine the relationships among management control, user contributions, project team task completion competency, and the project team’s performance. We argue that management control behaviors and user contribution that have direct impacts on project team’s task completion competency, which, in turn, impact project management performance and outcomes. By adding to our understanding of the process factors that lead to success of a development project, we build on the ability of organizations to address factors and process jointly in order to achieve eventual project success.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The importance of project team process factors has recently received attention in the IS literature. Aladwani (2002) has examined the project team’s general problem solving capability and its impact on project performance. Another project team process factor, task completion competency, has also been proposed in the literature. In fact, the lack of competence on IS project teams is one of the primary reasons for the failure of IS projects. Cost overruns are often caused by the absence of skills in the IS project teams and the presence of inexperienced IS personnel can lead to troubled project development (Charette, 1989). Unfortunately, little empirical work, with an exception of Aladwani’s study (2002), has been devoted to identify the external factors which lead to a project teams’ task completion competency. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to fill this gap by examining the impacts of two external factors (i.e., management control and user contribution) on IS project team’s task competency and through to project management performance. Surveying IS professionals, the results indicate that a team’s general task completion competency moderates the relationships from user contribution to project management performance and management control to project management performance. Also, the higher the levels of the team’s task completion competency, the larger the magnitude of impact on final project management performance. The results have several implications to IS management and researchers. First, the findings of this study provide additional insight to project management performance. Management control and user contribution factors are additional factors of organizational characteristics that influence project team’s task completion competency and, thus, project management performance. Second, the insignificant relationship between user contribution and project management performance implies that user contribution is fully mediated by the project team task competency variable on project management performance. This indicates that the major effect of user contribution is to enhance the levels of the IS project team’s task completion competence. This result adds another potential explanation for the impact of user participation on IS project outcomes to those of traditional studies of user participation, such as buy-in theories (Markus and Mao, 2004). In addition, the results of this study confirm the model proposed by Aladwani (2002) that team process factors are critical mediators to project management performance. The support of the critical role of project team’s task completion competency on project management performance is echoed in the IS skill research. IS skill researchers suggest that the knowledge of the IS members working on a system project is a more important factor in the determination of system success than the tools or methodologies in use (Abdel-Hamid, 1989 and Pinto and Kharbanda, 1995). Team members will not contribute productively to an IS project if they do not add to the team’s general skills, technological expertise, or application domain experience (Barki and Hartwick, 2001). Future studies that examine the user participation effect on final system outcomes may include task completion competency in their models. On the other hand, other mediators may still exist that explain the impact of management control on project management performance. One such possibility is teamwork quality (Högl and Gemünden, 2001). The social interactions of teams have been shown relevant in IS projects (Aladwani, 2002). The higher level of teamwork quality can boost the benefits of the activities conducted, either in a mediation role, or perhaps as a moderator in enhancing the effectiveness of user contributions or management controls in the promotion of competences. For IS practitioners, several implications are suggested. First, IS management must pay attention to the task completion competence at the team level, instead of the individual level. This team task completion competence includes the ability to work with undefined elements and uncertain objectives, ability to successfully complete a task, and ability to understand human implications of a new information system. Second, IS management should not overlook the contributions to be made from both the user and management sides. IS employees often perceive other stakeholders as hurdles to overcome in performing their jobs. However, getting the support from the users to answer the development questions, become part of the development task, and respond quickly to development team requests has a significant, positive impact on the team’s task completion competence. Similarly, management control on the changes of software requirements plays a significant role on the IS team’s task competency. Software development is a knowledge-learning intensive process. IS management must ensure software development teams understand and appreciate the importance of users and managers on their development tasks. There are limitations to this study, as with any survey based study. The foremost limitation is the single respondent approach to collecting data, which introduces the possibility of bias due to the same individuals reporting both the dependent and independent variables. Likewise, success variables are perceptions of the respondents, not based on objective measures. The sample was asked to respond to the questions considering only their most recently completed project, adding the possibility of recency bias. Still, accepted procedures to collect and validate the data are faithfully followed, giving credibility to generalizations.