مدیریت پروژه در شرکت های کوچک تا متوسط: تطابق فرآیندها با طبیعت شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3293||2010||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9204 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 28, Issue 8, December 2010, Pages 744–755
Small to medium enterprises (SMEs) make a key contribution to the economy in terms of employment, innovation and growth. Project management can play a significant role in facilitating this contribution, but SMEs require less bureaucratic forms of project management than those used by larger, traditional organizations. We are undertaking this research to identify the nature of project management required by SMEs, and the results of the qualitative stage of our research are reported in this paper. We interviewed people from companies of the three sizes of SME, micro, small and medium, from a range of industries and from four countries. SMEs use project management both to manage operations, to deliver tailored or bespoke products to customers, and manage innovation and growth. We found similar project management approaches used for both purposes. The main differences occurred by size of company and country. Both Ireland and Sweden looked for more laissez-faire management styles, while people in Austria and Romania were willing to accept more autocratic styles. People in Sweden wanted more structure than people in Ireland. Also laissez-faire styles of management were more appropriate in micro and small companies, whereas more democratic or autocratic styles were needed in medium-sized companies. All three sizes of company wanted less bureaucratic versions of project management than traditional forms, but medium-sized companies, where people fulfil more specialist roles, need more structure than small and micro companies.
Small to medium enterprises (SMEs), have a significant role as engines of economic and social development (Hallberg, 1999 and Floyd and McManus, 2005). According to the European Competitiveness Report (European Commission, 2005 and Commission, 2008), SMEs account for 99.8% of all companies in the European Union, generating 56% of GDP and employing 70% of private sector workers. Turner et al (2009) have shown that projects account on average for one third of the turnover of SMEs, and thus projects in SMEs account for almost one fifth of the economy. This is more than is spent on large infrastructure projects in the Western economies (Turner et al., 2010 and World Bank, 2006), and yet large infrastructure projects receive far more attention (Hartog et al, 2008). Projects in SMEs occur both in operations, providing tailored or bespoke products to customers, and to manage innovation and growth. Ledwith (2004) has shown that in Ireland 25% of the turnover of SMEs is accounted for by new and improved products. Thus innovation in SMEs accounts for 14% of the economy. To achieve this development SMEs spend 3% of their turnover on innovation. It is important to future economic growth that this money is spent in an efficient and effective way, so that SMEs can achieve their development objectives to act as engines of growth. We contend that the nature of project management required by SMEs will be very different than the traditional forms of project management suggested for larger projects. Project management had its genesis in the management of large engineering and construction projects, and subsequently procedures such as PRINCE2 (Office of Government Commerce, 2009) have been developed for medium-sized projects, but very little is written about the management of the smallest of projects. We have undertaken this research in order to identify the project management requirements of SMEs in managing their innovation and growth. We aim to answer the following questions: 1. To what extent do SMEs use project management both in their mainline business and to manage innovation and growth? 2. Do SMEs require less bureaucratic forms of project management than larger companies? 3. Are there any differences between the nature of project management used by SMEs in different sizes of company, different industries, and different countries? 4. What elements of the project management are important for SMEs? In the next section we describe what has been previously written about the nature of project management in SMEs. We then describe our research methodology. Our results are presented in three sections. In the first, we describe how SMEs use project management to manage both operations and innovation and growth and to what extent they use less bureaucratic versions than traditional project management. We then describe the differences observed by size of company, industry and country. In the last section we describe the components of project management used by SMEs.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
By and large, SMEs whose mainline business is project-based use project management to manage operations. Where they don't it is because of lack of interest by the founding entrepreneur or CEO. However, even in some companies where there is lack of interest by the CEO, the staff, especially if they are knowledge workers with previous experience of using project management, may use it anyway. There is wide use of project management for innovation and growth projects, but not as consistently as for operations management. Somewhat inconsistently, but for reasons that are explicable, a small number of firms would use project management for operations management, but not for managing innovation. Small and micro-sized firms prefer more people focussed approaches to project management that supported their sense of family. People will multi-task, and so laissez-faire approaches to management are more supportive of that. In medium-sized firms, there is much greater use of specialists, and their work needs much more formal coordination. More autocratic approaches to management are supportive of this. People in South-eastern European countries seem more accepting of autocratic management styles, and are more willing to follow a project plan developed by others. People in North-western European countries want to be involved in the planning process, and want more democratic or even laissez-faire management styles. People in Sweden recognize the need for coordination, and are willing to adhere to the plan once developed, though they want to be involved in its development. People in Ireland are the most resistant to management control. The results so far indicate very strongly that SMEs need a “lite” version of project management. However, because of the need to coordinate the work of specialists, medium-sized companies need more formalistic processes than micro-sized and small companies. Micro-sized and small companies need a micro-lite version of project management to support the work of generalists working in small project teams, with a preference for laissez-faire styles of management. Medium-sized companies need a lite version, still less bureaucratic than for larger companies, but able much more to coordinate the work of specialists. These lite and micro-lite versions of project management should be based around requirements management as the core element, providing supporting functionality for the delivery of requirements to customers. It must also be simple to use and clearly show value to win the support of doubters, especially the founder and entrepreneur, who must be convinced. Without the support of top management, project management will not be adopted. Our proposed next step is to conduct a quantitative survey to further develop these results and to develop a lite version of project management for medium-sized companies, and a micro-lite version for micro and small companies.