بازاندیشی در پیاده سازی مدیریت پروژه : ارزش افزوده رویکرد نقشه مسیر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3297||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5314 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 29, Issue 3, April 2011, Pages 295–302
The right implementation of project management can add great value to an organization. Nevertheless, some organizations have gained little value from project management due to the fact that they have not introduced and applied project management correctly. Therefore, it is very important for an organization to enhance the soft system and the hard system synchronously in the process of implementing project management. In this paper, the author has put forward an approach named Value Adding Path Map (VAPM) which can be used to direct an organization to implement project management in the most reasonable, logical, and economical way. At last, a case has been presented to show how to apply this approach.
As a powerful management solution, project management is becoming more and more popular in varied industrial sectors since 1980s. After PMI published the PMBOK guide in 1987, a clear body of knowledge of project management was outlined, which has been accepted by many companies and professionals as a useful manual to manage their projects. No longer just a sub-discipline of engineering, the management of projects is now the dominant model in many organizations for strategy implementation, business transformation, continuous improvement and new product development (Winter et al., 2006). It may even contribute to the fulfillment of strategic objectives in the entire business system as project business (Artto and Wikstrom, 2005). In order to identify the value of project management, Thomas and Mullaly (2006) organized a group to conduct the research named “understanding the value of project management”, which concentrated on finding and enhancing the value of project management in different kinds of organizations. The research findings show that the implementation of project management has brought irreplaceable value to organizations although the magnitudes vary from one another. Despite these developments, however, the current conceptual base of project management continues to attract criticism for its lack of relevance to practice and, consequently, to improved performance of projects across different industrial sectors (Winter et al., 2006). Although no one will doubt the value of project management, it is difficult to prove that spending money in project management worth. Regardless of how much literature exists in the area of effective project management, executives will not become committed until they see the system operating effectively and producing the expected dollar value of profit on the bottom line of the projects (Patah and de Carvalho, 2007). In addition, project management is not as consistently effective as it ought to be in delivering bottom line improvement when used in the business context. Even when projects are completed on time and to budget, the result is often less effective than the business required or hoped for (Anderson and Merna, 2003). Even worse, puzzled by the dilemma of the asymmetry between much investment and little value of return, some organizations have drawn rein the application of project management after a fashionable training program. Actually, the main argument was not that the extant project management body of thought with its concepts, methodologies and tools is worthless and should be abandoned, but rather that a new research network was needed to enrich and extend the field beyond its current intellectual foundations, and connect it more closely to the challenges of contemporary project management practice (Winter et al., 2006). Therefore, we cannot assert that project management is useless just according to the result of its misusing. If we want to maximize the value of project management, two things should be addressed. Firstly, the approach of implementing project management is right. Secondly, the organizational environment is suitable for the implementation of project management. That is, if we regard project management as a machine, the right way of operating the machine and using it in a suitable environment are both very critical. It is unwise if we use the machine under an unsuitable environment. It is even worse if we draw a conclusion that the machine is useless. In this paper, the author has put forward an approach named “Value Adding Path Map” (VAPM), which can be used to help an organization optimize the process of implementing project management and exploit the largest value of project management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The implementation of project management in an organization will greatly affect the value that they may gain from project management. During the process of introducing and implementing project management to an organization, the configurations of soft system and hard system are both very important. Only by enhancing the soft and hard system synchronously, can we follow the most economical and reasonable path to improve the value of project management. This is the foundation for the author to develop the approach of VAPM. The interview and case study in this research are based on the project management practice in the Chinese context. In recent years, many Chinese companies are entering or going to enter a critical period for the implementation of project management. Although they seem to be very good on setting the goals, doing the global planning and having better focus in deviation control (Andersen et al., 2002), how to implement project management in the right way is still an incisive topic for them to concern about. The VAPM approach can be referred to by those organizations which have met dilemmas to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of project management. The history of the implementation of project management can also be traced through this approach. The case study shows that this approach is simple and easy to be used to describe the reasonable path of the implementation of project management. In addition, this approach has provided a new view for the evaluation of the organizational project management maturity in terms of concentrating on the alignment of the configurations of hard system and soft system in an organization. It should be noted that the literature review has shown a large amount of indicators regarding the implementation of project management at both strategic and tactic level. The VAPM approach just concludes several main factors and makes it relatively simple for practical application. Hence it can be regarded as a simplified semi-numeric conceptual framework for finding the best path of the implementation of project management. As a matter of fact, the implementation of project management and the value it adds to an organization are usually affected not only by internal variables in an organization but also by many external dynamic variables which probably come from outside such as market change and customer requirement. Another problem is that sometime the value of project management cannot be easily quantified. For example, if project management is linked with other management system such as TQM, it will improve the efficiency of management (Bryde and Robinson, 2007). However, it is quite difficult for us to separate the value of project management from the value of TQM. In addition, the best path of the implementation of project management in different industrial sectors can be, to some degree, different from one another. Therefore, a detailed research needs to be conducted to examine the difference of implementing project management in different industries. This paper has not addressed these issues. Therefore, the VAPM approach needs to be improved in the future research.