ارزیابی تجربی همکاری متقابل به عنوان یک تاکتیک موثر میانجیگر در مدیریت پروژه ساخت و ساز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3315||2012||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9067 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Available online 23 June 2012
Construction projects are prone to have disputes. Mediation has gained wide acceptance and is an integral part of the dispute settlement provisions in most of the standard forms of construction contract in Hong Kong. In mediation, the parties are encouraged to achieve maximum joint gains through making integrative concession on issues of low substitute rate and high welfare rate. Logrolling is identified as a mediating tactic whereby a mediator assists the disputing parties to improve joint value in bargaining exchanges and get convergence along the efficient frontier. Based on this conceptualization, a web-based mock mediation experiment that incorporates a logrolling system had been developed. Thirty experiments with practicing construction professionals were conducted. The results support the hypothesis that accepting the mediator's suggestion can achieve greater joint value, make greater integrative concessions, reduce substitute rate and enhance welfare rate in bargaining exchange, than those rejecting the mediator's suggestion.
Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost, time, quality and participation satisfaction (Hendrickson and Au, 1989, Munns and Bjeirmi, 1996, Söderholm, 2008 and Yaghootkar and Gil, 2012). In construction, project managers are required to handle projects of different scopes, complexities and timelines (Maylor et al., 2006, Milosevic and Patanakul, 2005, Naaranoja et al., 2007, Platje and Seidel, 1993, Raymond and Bergeron, 2008 and Turner et al., 2010). Problems are inevitable in construction projects. It is likely that small and minor problems can be resolved successfully through negotiation between the parties in disagreement. However, problems in more complex projects are multi-issue and sophisticated, in particular when legal issues are involved. In such circumstances, unresolved problems may end as disputes that have to be decided through expensive and time-consuming legal procedures. When this happens, the project will be adversely affected (Jannadia, et al., 2000). During the past two decades, serious disputes have become increasingly common on construction projects in Hong Kong. Mediation has gained wide acceptance as an effective informal means of resolution. It has become an integral part of the dispute settlement provisions in most of the standard forms of construction contract in Hong Kong (Cheung, 2010). In addition to this contractual use, voluntary mediation has been introduced in the civil procedures of the High Court as part of the Civil Justice Reform that came into force on 2nd April 2009. Under Practice Direction 6.1, adverse cost order is used to discourage ‘refusal to mediate’ and ‘failing to attempt to mediate’. The Hong Kong Department of Justice in 2010 published a draft report giving recommendations on how to promote and develop mediation services in Hong Kong. One of the key recommendations is to provide mediation training widely in order to arouse public awareness. Process design (Cheung et al., 2000, Cheung et al., 2004, Harmon, 2006 and Novemskya and Schweitzerb, 2004) and mediators' intervention (Carnevale et al., 1989, Cheung and Yiu, 2007 and Yiu and Cheung, 2007) have been the major foci of mediation research. With the advance in information technology in the last few decades, negotiation support systems (NSS) and e-negotiation systems (ENS) have been developed to assist parties to evaluate their options thereby facilitating parties to attain optimal outcomes (Lim and Benbasat, 1992). These systems simulate the role of a mediator in relaying the parties' interests and preference, nonetheless these systems seldom offer advice and suggestions on compromises and concessions that have proved to be critical in moving forward a negotiation. Logrolling is defined as a strategy for achieving integrative trade-off; each party concedes on low priority issues in exchange for concessions on issues of higher priority to themselves (Lax and Sebenius, 1986, Neale and Bazerman, 1991 and Pruitt and Rubin, 1986). However there is no reported study on the application of logrolling strategy in mediation. This study aims to fill this gap. An experiment has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness of logrolling as a mediating tactic through a computer simulated mediation. In mediation, the parties are encouraged to achieve maximum joint gains through making integrative concession on issues of low substitute rate and high welfare rate. The strategy of logrolling is closely related to the concept of efficient frontier. In this study, logrolling is proposed as a mediator tactic to help parties to improve joint value by bargaining exchange and get convergence along the efficient frontier. In economics term, those alternatives other than on the efficient frontier are worse than what they could achieve (Mas-Colell et al., 1995). To operationalize the logrolling strategy, a web-based logrolling system is developed. A web-based mock mediation experiment was conducted to test whether the logrolling strategy could work as an effective mediating tactic. The logrolling system thus simulates a mediator in action. In fact, use of logrolling tactic is not confined to mediation. Project managers can use the same technique in handling differences among project team members. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 1 gives the background for the study. In Section 2, a literature review on mediating tactics and logrolling is presented. Section 3 gives the concept of logrolling strategy and the design of the logrolling system. Section 4 provided details of the mock mediation experiment. Section 5 gives the conclusions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Mediation, a form of assisted negotiation, has gained wide acceptance as a means of construction dispute resolution in Hong Kong. The disputants are both better off if they are able to make integrative concessions and achieve maximum joint value. This can be achieved by trading off issues of low substitute rate and high welfare rate in the bargaining. Logrolling strategy is proposed to facilitate such trade off. Logrolling keeps parties to improve joint value and get convergence along the efficient frontier. This paper reports a study that explores whether the logrolling strategy can work as an effective mediating tactic. To operationalize the logrolling strategy, a web-based logrolling system is developed. A web-based mock mediation experiment had been conducted, where the logrolling system simulates a mediator in action. The logrolling outcomes between subjects accepting the mediator's suggestion and those rejecting the mediator's suggestion were compared. The results support the hypothesis that accepting the mediator's suggestion can achieve greater joint value, make greater integrative concessions, reduce substitute rate and enhance welfare rate in bargaining exchange, than those rejecting the mediator's suggestion. The findings also reveal that negotiators who make greater concessions to the counterpart do not place themselves in a disadvantaged position, on the other hand, reluctant to make concessions does result in the suboptimal outcomes. The findings also shed light on the problem solving role of project managers who will find logrolling strategy an effective means to handle complex, inter-linked multi-issue problems.