کمرویی و اینترنت: مشکل اجتماعی یا نوش دارو؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33220||2008||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 24, Issue 6, 17 September 2008, Pages 2649–2658
Shyness is a debilitating experience for a large proportion of the population. Shyness can be defined as a form of excessive self-focus, a preoccupation with one’s thoughts, feelings, and physical reactions and may vary from mild social awkwardness to total social inhibition. This article explores shyness, its prevalence and effects and examines the role of the internet in the experience and expression of shyness. Compared to research on shyness in the offline world, empirical work on shyness online is relatively scarce. Nevertheless, the research that does exist can be categorized into two seemingly contradictory positions. The first position views the internet as an isolating medium, attractive to shy people and enhancing shyness. The second position describes the internet as an empowering medium, offering opportunities to experience disinhibition and social competence. This paper considers how the two positions might be reconciled. In addition, in order to reduce inconsistencies in the literature and to determine how shy people use the internet, it is suggested that more research, incorporating objective measures and experimental methodologies, is needed.
Shyness is both pervasive and problematic for those who suffer it. Some reports suggest that the prevalence of shyness is increasing (Carducci & Zimbardo, 1995). These increases have been attributed to growing social isolation and the progressively mediated nature of communication (Henderson & Zimbardo, 1998a). At the same time, it is often taken for granted that new communication technologies facilitate disinhibition and increase social confidence. Sonja Utz (2000) for example, in her examination of friendship online, concluded that “the potential of virtual worlds for overcoming shyness has long been considered and now appears to be somewhat conclusive” (p. 16). In this review we examine the nature of shyness, its prevalence and impact. We also evaluate the theoretical and empirical literature related to shyness online. We ask how the internet affects shyness and explore the existing support from two seemingly different viewpoints. Does the internet increase shyness and present a particular risk for shy individuals, further isolating them from others? Or can the internet, through its unique features, enhance feelings of social competence and facilitate interpersonal interaction for shy people?
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Shyness involves discomfort and awkwardness in interpersonal situations and, for most, is a debilitating condition that is associated with a range of adverse health, cognitive, social, and behavioral effects. In particular, shyness has been found to reduce social interactions and enhance negative views of one self. Reports indicate the prevalence of shyness is increasing, with estimates suggesting that 50% of individuals currently suffer from shyness (Carducci & Zimbardo, 1995). It has been argued that an increasing reliance on ICT may have contributed to the contemporary proliferation of shyness (Henderson & Zimbardo, 1998a). Research evaluating the relationship between shyness and the internet is, however, contradictory. On the one hand, some studies suggest that shyness is a central component and predicting factor of internet addiction. It has been theorized that shy individuals feel more confident online and engage in ICT to compensate for their lack of offline social interaction. This leads to a reduction in opportunities to engage in face-to-face interactions and may cause an increase in levels of shyness offline. From this perspective, the internet enhances social isolation. On the other hand, social network theory and related research suggest that the internet increases social ties between people and provides shy individuals with a safe place to interact and form relationships. According to this perspective, online interactions reduce inhibition both online and offline, regardless of how shy people are to begin with. Although there has been considerable research on shyness offline, there is a paucity of studies of shyness online. The two positions, with which we began this review, are therefore supported by a relatively small empirical literature and that literature is not consistent. Although some studies, for example, support a relationship between shyness and internet addition, others have failed to find correlations. Some research has suggested that time spent online detracts from time spent in offline interactions. Other research has supported the “rich get richer” model, suggesting that the benefits of interacting online seem to spill over into the offline world. In this article we identified and described two positions evident in the current literature on shyness online: shyness may predict internet addiction, however, paradoxically certain qualities of internet communication, such as greater anonymity and absence of gating features, may afford protection for shy individuals and allow them to expand their social network. These two positions appear, at first glance, to be inconsistent. Can both be plausible explanations of shyness online? Clearly further work is required to identify the mediating variables, such as level of shyness, frequency of internet use, gender, age, and personality traits. Limitations inherent in the current literature, including the use of student samples and self-reports, brief uni-dimensional measures, small samples, and correlational designs, might all be profitably ameliorated in future research. In particular, experimental and longitudinal studies would provide a valuable complement to the ethnographic and qualitative work already done in this area. If shyness is reduced online, as the existing literature suggests, the incorporation of internet based learning tools into educational settings may be beneficial for students suffering from shyness. A number of educational institutions rely on internet tools, such as online discussions, to enhance learning. Online discussions offer students the opportunity to have more control over their self-presentation which can lead to greater disinhibiton and an increase in participation from students (Chester and O’Hara, 2007 and Sullivan, 2002). Whilst more research is needed, online educational settings may potentially reduce shyness in students who have difficulties communicating ideas in face-to-face classes. Finally, interventions might be developed to help shy individuals experience and express them selves more confidently online and then apply these lessons to the offline world. Online interventions are increasingly proving effective in a range of areas such as depression, eating disorders, and panic disorder (Carlbring & Andersson, 2006). The adaptation of current treatment models for online delivery might prove particularly beneficial for shy people drawn to the perceived safety of online interactions.