کمرویی کودکان، محبوبیت، علاقه به مدرسه، مشارکت تعاونی و مشکلات درونی در سال تحصیلی اوایل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33243||2014||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8400 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 1, 1st Quarter 2014, Pages 85–94
Aims of the present study included understanding the manner in which shyness during the first year of formal schooling predicts early popularity in the peer group, as well as the manner in which children's shyness and popularity uniquely contribute to later school liking, cooperative participation, and internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling using parents’, teachers’, and children's reports suggested that children's (N = 291; 46% girls) kindergarten shyness predicted lower school liking and lower cooperative participation during second grade through its negative association with first grade popularity. Shyness during the first year of formal schooling may relate to difficulties in the classroom during later years due to problematic peer relations. The indirect relation of kindergarten shyness to second-grade internalizing problems through first-grade popularity was not statistically significant. Kindergarten shyness was also directly related to higher cooperative participation, which suggests that relations between early shyness and classroom engagement may be more complex than previously assumed.
Identifying characteristics and behaviors that facilitate academic functioning, especially in the early grades, is a fruitful research undertaking. School liking (children's positive attitudes toward school; Ladd, Buhs, & Seid, 2000) and cooperative participation in the classroom (compliance with rules, responsible behavior, and acceptance of teachers’ authority; Ladd et al., 2000) are thought to benefit students’ learning and academic progress (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004). In contrast, the presence of internalizing problems (e.g., anxiety, depression, withdrawal, somatic complaints, and loneliness) may hinder academic success (Fredricks et al., 2004). Consequently, research into individual characteristics and interpersonal factors predicting school liking, cooperative participation, and internalizing problems represent efforts to better equip students to succeed in competitive academic and economic environments. The influence of shyness, defined as “wariness in the face of social novelty and/or self-conscious behavior in situations of perceived social evaluation” (Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009, p. 145), in multiple contexts (e.g., peer-group, teacher–child) is increasingly discussed in the literature. Shyness is a particularly relevant characteristic to examine in relation to school-related outcomes, given the social nature of the classroom. In addition, shyness is likely to be associated with internalizing problems, particularly when children's shyness is upsetting to them. Sociometric popularity, which reflects being liked and accepted by peers as opposed to social power (Asher & McDonald, 2009), is a component of a child's peer system, the climate of which may influence classroom participation and attitude, as well as well-being. Popularity also may act as a mediator through which shyness affects children's adjustment, such that shyness relates to low popularity, and low popularity relates to poorer adjustment. We hypothesized that shyness during kindergarten would relate to school liking, cooperative participation, and internalizing problems during second grade through its relation with first grade popularity. 1.1. School liking and cooperative participation Understanding predictors of school liking and cooperative participation is important. Forming a negative attitude toward and disengaging from the classroom during the first school years may set the stage for poor academic trajectories, such as low achievement (Fredricks et al., 2004, Ladd and Burgess, 2001 and Ladd and Dinella, 2009). 1.1.1. Relations between shyness and school liking School liking is expected to be lower for shy than non-shy children. Coplan and colleagues (Coplan and Arbeau, 2008 and Hughes and Coplan, 2010) have theorized that shy children's transition to the school environment and functioning in the classroom might differ from non-shy children's, and this might have implications for affective connectedness to school. For example, shy children are reactive to novelty and experience excessive self-consciousness. The transition to school brings with it new peers and adults, as well as increased social and academic expectations. In addition, shy or withdrawn children's vulnerability to negative peer treatment may lead them to want to avoid activities with peers and promote further withdrawal (Rubin, Bowker, & Kennedy, 2009). Finally, shyness has been negatively related to teacher–child closeness (Justice et al., 2008 and Rudasill, 2011). Discomfort in the classroom, poor peer treatment, and disconnected relationships with teachers may result in shy children's low school liking or a desire to avoid school. Although expected, empirical support for a negative relation between shyness and school liking is limited. Kindergartners’ shyness has been negatively related to broad school adjustment (a composite which included school liking; Coplan, Arbeau, & Armer, 2008). Similarly, kindergartners’ teacher-rated shyness has been negatively related to concurrent child-reported school liking (Valiente, Swanson, & Lemery-Chalfant, 2012). 1.1.2. Relations between shyness and cooperative participation Competing arguments exist regarding the manner in which shyness should relate to classroom engagement, but the emerging body of literature points to a negative relation (Evans, 2010), perhaps because shyness inhibits tendencies to interact with classroom peers. Nonetheless, the prognosis for shy students’ classroom engagement might not be all gloom and doom. Shyness is likely negatively related to some, but not all, aspects of classroom participation. We expect shyness to be positively related to cooperative participation, as shy children typically are viewed as compliant and well-behaved in the classroom ( Evans, 2010). Bosacki, Coplan, Rose-Krasnor, and Hughes (2011) found that although teachers recognized shy children's lack of confidence and difficulty gaining peer acceptance, they perceived shy children as non-disruptive, attentive listeners who conformed to classroom routines. Furthermore, social anxiety, heightened when interacting with adults and authority figures (e.g., teachers), is likely to prompt compliance ( Beidel & Turner, 1998). Shy children's cooperative participation has been examined as part of a composite of classroom participation or engagement. For example, Valiente et al. (2012) reported a negative relation between kindergartners’ shyness and their participation (a composite of cooperative and independent participation). Hughes and Coplan (2010) also obtained a negative relation between 9- and 13-year olds’ shyness and academic engagement. Half of the items encompassed aspects that would be considered cooperative participation in the present study (which we expect to positively relate to shyness), but the other half of the items included behaviors such as hand-raising in class, which we did not include, but would expect to negatively relate to shyness. Differentiating between forms of classroom participation may provide a clearer understanding of the manner in which shyness relates to engagement. In the present study, we isolated one component of classroom participation – cooperative participation. 1.1.3. Relations between popularity and school liking Popularity is conceptualized as being liked and accepted by one's peers, and in the early school years is moderately stable, positively related to cooperation and positive peer interactions, and negatively related to aggressive behavior (Rubin & Daniels-Beirness, 1983). Popular children are expected to enjoy school, given it is an environment in which peers want to interact with them. Unpopular children may view school as boring, lonely, or threatening, due to their lack of a positive connection with the peer group. Popularity and related aspects of peer relationships have been positively related to school liking. For example, teacher-reported popularity has been positively related to concurrent school liking for older elementary students (Kwon, Kim, & Sheridan, 2012), and kindergartners’ peer acceptance was positively related to school liking (Ladd & Coleman, 1997). 1.1.4. Relations between popularity and cooperative participation Many characteristics associated with popularity (e.g., being cooperative, prosocial, and non-disruptive; Coie, Dodge, & Coppotelli, 1982) are likely to prompt cooperative participation. Moreover, social relatedness with peers should enhance a sense of belonging, motivation, and participation in academic contexts. Peer acceptance and friendships (Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 1998) are believed to promote social inclusion in the classroom which, in turn, yields resources that foster interpersonal and academic success (Ladd, 2003). In contrast, children who are less-liked and less-accepted by peers may have characteristics less compatible with cooperative participation, such as aggression (Rubin, Bukowski, & Parker, 2006). Aggressive children may display defiance toward teachers and classroom rules. Children low in acceptance may disengage from classroom activities to protect themselves from further rejection (Buhs & Ladd, 2001). Young children's popularity, per se, has not been examined with respect to cooperative participation; however, kindergartners low in peer acceptance have shown low classroom cooperative and autonomous participation, and this effect has been mediated by poor peer treatment (Buhs and Ladd, 2001 and Ladd et al., 1999). 1.2. Internalizing problems Not all children with internalizing problems appearing in early childhood will retain these problems throughout childhood, but some do. Sterba, Prinstein, and Cox (2007) found 13% of boys and 21% of girls to have an elevated and stable trajectory of internalizing problems from ages 2 to 11 years, supporting the notion that early onset internalizing symptoms can be more severe and long-lasting than late-onset internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, internalizing problems have been associated with academic difficulties. Internalizing problems have been negatively related to academic achievement for 7- and 8-year olds (van Lier et al., 2012). Symptoms associated with internalizing behavior (e.g., loss of concentration, low self-esteem) may reduce adaptive functioning in the classroom. Given the potential stability of internalizing problems and the association between internalizing problems and academic functioning, we sought to advance the understanding of factors associated with young children's internalizing problems. 1.2.1. Relations between shyness and internalizing problems Theoretically, shyness is expected to be related to internalizing problems. For some shy children, conflicting motivations may influence internalizing problems, in that they want to belong and interact with classmates but are upset that they are unable to do so. In addition, shy children may utilize ineffective coping strategies which enhance internalizing problems (Findlay, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009). Shyness also is expected to relate to internalizing due to shy children's problems with peers. For example, shy third graders have responded to rejection with social helplessness (Gazelle & Druhen, 2009), which may prompt anxiety or sadness and exacerbate withdrawal from classmates. Furthermore, shy, peer-excluded kindergartners have shown greater risk for elevated trajectories of depression during grade school (Gazelle & Ladd, 2003). Rubin, Burgess, Kennedy, and Stewart (2003) suggested shy and withdrawn children may make internal attributions for their social difficulties; consequently, such self-blame and low self-esteem are expected to prompt internalizing problems. A robust literature base suggests that shyness is positively associated with internalizing within or across time during infancy to middle childhood (Coplan et al., 2008 and Karevold et al., 2011), as well as preadolescence and adolescence (Leve et al., 2005, Oldehinkel et al., 2004 and Prior et al., 2000). 1.2.2. Relations between popularity and internalizing problems Low popularity or peer-group acceptance may prompt feelings of inadequacy, marginalization, or failure, and lead to internalizing problems. Children not well-accepted by peers have reported loneliness and poor self-worth (Crick & Ladd, 1993). In contrast, popular children may have a larger group of peers from which to draw support when under stress and be less prone to internalizing problems. Among older children, popularity has been negatively associated with internalizing. Popular third- to fifth-grade girls showed less depression than rejected girls (Bell-Dolan, Foster, & Christopher, 1995). Furthermore, children low in fourth-grade peer acceptance experienced internalizing problems in fifth grade (Flook, Repetti, & Ullman, 2005). 1.3. Relations between shyness and popularity Shyness may predict school liking, cooperative engagement, and internalizing problems through its association with peer relationships. Shy and withdrawn children are at risk for problematic peer relationships (Rubin et al., 2006). Shy and withdrawn children have been described as “easy marks” for peers, and this puts them at risk for being bullied and rejected (Rubin et al., 2006, p. 614). On an intuitive level, many attributes often associated with popularity (e.g., sociability, assertiveness, good communication skills) appear to be incompatible with shyness. Compared to sociable children, shy children are less socially assertive (Stewart & Rubin, 1995). It is likely more difficult to gain peers’ acceptance when interactions are limited in quantity or social skill. For instance, children make fewer social overtures compared to sociable children, and the social overtures they make are less successful (Asendorpf, 1990 and Stewart and Rubin, 1995), limiting engagement with peers. Social withdrawal and shyness sometimes have been negatively related to popularity (Booth-LaForce & Oxford, 2008); more frequently, however, shyness has been examined in relation to aspects of peer relationships other than, but relevant to, popularity. For example, compared to non-shy/non-withdrawn peers, shy/withdrawn children are more likely to elicit negative attitudes (rejection, dislike) and treatment (exclusion) from peers and to be less accepted, even during the early school years (Arbeau et al., 2010, Asher and McDonald, 2009, Coplan et al., 2008, Gazelle, 2006, Gazelle and Ladd, 2003, Gazelle et al., 2005 and Rubin et al., 2010). Others have found a lack of relations linking young children's shyness and popularity (or other aspects of peer relationships). Kindergartners’ shyness was unrelated to peer-reported popularity (Bowen, Vitaro, Kerr, & Pelletier, 1995) or to peer- or parent-reported peer acceptance; however, shyness was negatively associated with teacher-reported peer acceptance (Phillipsen, Bridges, McLemore, & Saponaro, 1999). Shyness occasionally has been negatively related to popularity more consistently for boys than girls (Eisenberg, Shepard, Fabes, Murphy, & Guthrie, 1998). Similar sex differences are sometimes apparent with regard to shyness and peer exclusion, perhaps because shyness violates male gender roles to a greater degree than female gender roles (Coplan et al., 2004 and Gazelle and Ladd, 2003). Consequently, we expected the relation between shyness and popularity to be stronger for boys than for girls in the present study. 1.4. The present study We focused on three outcomes, given they have been found to predict academic progress and achievement (Fredricks et al., 2004): school liking, cooperative participation, and internalizing problems. Our first aim was to examine the manner in which shyness during kindergarten (henceforth called K) predicted popularity during the first grade (henceforth called G1). Shyness or withdrawal may affect peer-group relations, but the direction of causality may be reversed for some children (Rubin et al., 2009a and Rubin et al., 2009b). The relation between shyness and popularity occasionally has been explored, but an advantage of the present study is that shyness data were collected in the fall of kindergarten. Although not impossible, it is less likely that children who exhibited shyness in kindergarten did so as a result of isolation by peers at earlier ages. Rather, children exhibiting shyness in kindergarten likely did so as a result of anxiety in social situations. Furthermore, although associations between shyness and negative treatment from the peer group have been found in previous studies (Rubin et al., 2006), because debate exists with regard to when shyness becomes problematic in the peer setting, we examined this potential relation during an early developmental period when most children regularly engage in settings with peers – early formal schooling. We hypothesized that shyness would negatively relate to popularity. Our second and third aims were to examine the relations of K shyness and G1 popularity, respectively, to school liking, cooperative engagement, and internalizing problems in the second grade (henceforth called G2). We hypothesized that shyness would negatively relate to school liking and positively relate to cooperative participation and internalizing problems. We expected that popularity would positively relate to school liking and cooperative participation and negatively relate to internalizing problems. A contribution of our study is the examination of the relation between shyness and cooperative participation. In previous research, cooperative participation has been combined with other aspects of classroom engagement, which may differentially relate to shyness. In addition, shyness seldom has been examined in relation to school liking in early childhood, and mediators of this potential relation have not been explored.