متا آنالیز از مبادله دانش در مدیریت پروژه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3326||2013||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8705 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 31, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 2–13
Brokering knowledge is a fast growing innovative and important research theme in the project management environment. The current paper analyzes and classifies the research on knowledge brokering and knowledge transfer in project management published in the leading journals over the last decade. An array of classifications was implemented on the articles in order to identify patterns and themes of interest. The findings indicate that this field of research is rapidly developing, mainly in the engineering and information technology sectors. It was revealed that many studies are based on qualitative research methods and that research is focused on understanding knowledge transfer between individuals rather than groups. Contemporary issues of study include developing tools for knowledge transferring, understanding the unique characteristics of knowledge transfer in global projects, and discussing the social aspect of brokering knowledge. These subjects are probably expected to gain research attention in the following years.
The concept of knowledge is probably as ancient as the human race, while the first known theories of knowledge date back to Plato and Aristotle or maybe even to earlier philosophers. Current organizational knowledge communication is the field of study that investigates the dynamic process of transferring knowledge between entities, although the identity of these entities, the environment in which they function, and the nature of their actions may vary in different situations. Project organizations provide an infrastructure for multi-faceted research on brokering knowledge due to the nature of their distinctive characteristics, as projects are temporary endeavors that incorporated the work of heterogeneous professionals to create unique products or results (PMI, 2008). The characteristics of a project as a temporary effort raise the challenge of sharing knowledge between individuals and groups participating in short-term establishments, which do not have an inherent mechanism of learning, and that are usually focused on immediate deliverables (Lindner and Wald, 2011). Another challenge is derived from the diversity of the project team, which often consists of members from different backgrounds, with various skills, who work together for the duration of the project and then disperse and reassemble in different teams (Ajmal and Koskinen, 2008 and Ruuska and Teigland, 2009). An additional challenge is related to the innovative aspects associated with developing new products in projects, which necessitates the sharing of lessons learned and the transfer of tacit knowledge from previous ventures to current projects (Chen, 2005 and Goffin et al., 2010), or retain knowledge acquired by experts and specialists to gain a competitive advantage (Daghfous, 2004 and Schmickl and Kieser, 2008). Beyond the project level, learning in project organizations is based on cross-project knowledge transferring, where the knowledge acquired in one project is transferred to other projects and it is often used in other contexts (Newell, 2004, Newell et al., 2006 and Uffmann et al., 2006). However, the concept of utilizing knowledge from different sources is implemented even in a wider framework, in the case of a partnership established by several project-organizations initiated primarily to achieve better results (Bosch-Sijtsema, 2010 and Park et al., 2011). The subject of management of knowledge was studied by Takeuchi and Nonaka (2004), who defined four modes of knowledge conversion in the form of a matrix. These forms include socialization: sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience; externalization: articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection; combination: systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information; and internalization: learning and acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice. This work is a seminal study that promoted the investigation of knowledge transfer in further directions. There is an established agreement that knowledge is an essential asset and a core resource in project management. Therefore, an effective creation and sharing of knowledge is required not only for project success (Benjamins et al., 1998 and Davenport et al., 1998), but also for gaining a competitive advantage that enables continuous delivery of successful projects while further developing capabilities and competencies (Hirai et al., 2007, Hsu and Lim, 2007, Kotnour, 1999, Landaeta, 2008 and Snider and Nissen, 2003). Although mentioned and discussed in previous papers (e.g., Andas et al., 1998, Hargadon and Sutton, 2000 and Holmberg, 1998), brokering knowledge is relatively a new discipline of research in the arena of project management. However, it has been gaining attention and it is evolving very rapidly in the last decade. Knowledge brokers act as mediators in the process of knowledge transfer between the various participants in the network. They bridge the gaps and intermediate the facilitation of the knowledge transfer by creating links between individuals or organizational units that possess the knowledge to those who need it (Goffin et al., 2010, Pawlowski and Robey, 2004 and Ward et al., 2009). Sometimes knowledge brokers go beyond creating these connections and take an actual part in creating the knowledge itself while adding to it a supplementary value (Hargadon, 1998, Meyer, 2010 and Sverrisson, 2001). Knowledge brokering can be accomplished by individual members in the project environment who transfer knowledge between communities (Ajmal and Koskinen, 2008 and Ruuska and Teigland, 2009) or by individual experts who are either part of the project team or outside specialists and consultants (Richter and Niewiem, 2009 and Sowe et al., 2006). However, knowledge brokering can also be carried out by organizations in the form of a joint partnership (Bosch-Sijtsema, 2010 and Park et al., 2011), as consulting firms that transfer their knowledge directly to selected organizations (Hargadon, 2002 and Svensson, 2007) or as research oriented organizations that create new knowledge for the benefit of the global community (Arayici et al., 2011, Lomas, 2007, Martin et al., 2008 and Ward et al., 2009). Yet another perspective for brokering knowledge is related to the media and channels of transforming knowledge, which is currently dominated by software and automated transferring tools (Contractor et al., 1998, Loew et al., 2007 and Szarka et al., 2004). The aim of the current paper is therefore to provide an overview of the research on brokering knowledge in project management. It intends to map the existing body of knowledge, and to identify and classify major themes of research. This study provides a meta-analysis of the subject matter as researched, analyzed, and discussed in the literature during the last ten years, thus contributes to the research community a platform and basic layout for future studies. The next section describes the methodology and the data used for the current research. The third section presents classifications of the reviewed articles based on several conceptual categories, and the following section explores evolving areas of interest within the field of brokering knowledge in project management. The paper concludes with a summary and a discussion of the research limitations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
current study surveyed the existing body of knowledge in the field of brokering knowledge in project management. It offers an investigation into diverse levels of literature analysis, including journal and year of publication, sector, region of study, research methodology, actions of knowledge brokers and networks for transferring knowledge. It reviews developing areas of interest and suggests insights regarding future research directions in this field, hence presenting a comprehensive set of concepts, terms and activities that make up this professional domain. However, the current research has several limitations. First, the dataset of research articles is not complete and at the same time might include redundant data. The study was limited to articles that were found in three online databases, thus leaving out an array of works that investigated the subject but did not appear in these databases. It cannot be assured that an exhaustive list of research related to the topic have been identified and incorporated in the paper. On the other hand, by defining “knowledge transfer” as the search keywords rather than limiting the search to “brokering knowledge”, a group of articles that were not focused on the specific issue of brokering could enter the research dataset. This decision was taken because the term “brokering knowledge” is a relatively new term. Future studies could refine the searching criteria and method to produce a more reliable dataset. Second, the quantitative research approach was applied, thus assigning articles based on the identification of categories method. This descriptive analysis overlooks the quality of the published articles and classifies them based on a counting technique. Although this method followed Weber's (1990) protocol for coding texts thus providing consistent profiles and a comprehensive overview of the topic researched, additional research into the quality of the publications might offer deeper understanding of the subject. Overall, reviewing and analyzing a decade of research on the subject of brokering knowledge in project management, yielded a valuable understanding of this developing topic. The paper provides a platform for future research by highlighting interesting issues to be explored by further studies.