خشم و سیستم رویکرد رفتاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33270||2003||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4836 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 35, Issue 5, October 2003, Pages 995–1005
Two studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that trait anger is related to trait behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS). In both studies, trait BAS, as assessed by Carver and White's (1994) scale, was positively related to trait anger, as assessed by the Buss and Perry (1992) aggression questionnaire. One of the two studies found that trait anger also related to trait behavioral inhibition sensitivity (BIS) at the simple correlation level. In both studies, statistically controlling for general negative affect, which correlates with both anger and BIS, revealed that BAS and not BIS related to anger. In these regression analyses, general negative affect also related to anger, suggesting that BAS and general negative affect independently contribute to anger. Additional results in Study 2 revealed that BAS was positively correlated with physical aggression, and regressing aggression onto BAS, BIS, and general negative affect revealed that physical aggression was positively related to BAS, negatively related to BIS, and positively related to negative affect. Together with other research on anger and left frontal cortical activity (e.g. Harmon-Jones & Sigelman, 2001), the present results strongly challenge theoretical models that assume that approach motivation is associated only with positive affect.
Several motivation theorists have proposed that two systems underlie much behavior. One system, is posited to manage appetitive, incentive motivation and approach behavior. It has been referred to as a behavioral activation system (BAS; Fowles, 1980 and Fowles, 1988), behavioral approach system (BAS; Gray, 1982, Gray, 1987a, Gray, 1987b, Gray, 1990, Gray, 1994a and Gray, 1994b), and behavioral facilitation system (Depue and Collins, 1999, Depue and Iacono, 1989 and Depue et al., 1987). It has also been referred to as an approach or appetitive motivational system (Cacioppo and Berntson, 1994, Cacioppo et al., 1999, Davidson, 1998, Lang et al., 1990 and Lang et al., 1997). The other proposed system manages aversive motivation and the behaviors of avoidance and withdrawal. This system has been referred to as the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Gray, 1982, Gray, 1987a, Gray, 1987b, Gray, 1990 and Gray, 1994b), aversive/defensive system (Lang et al., 1990 and Lang et al., 1997), and withdrawal motivational system (Davidson, 1998). In addition, these motive systems are posited to be involved in the generation of emotions that are relevant to approach and withdrawal behavior. And although the theories underlying the proposed motivational systems differ in several regards, most of the theories posit that the approach motivational system (e.g. BAS) is involved in the generation of positive affect (Depue and Iacono, 1989, Gray, 1994b, Lang et al., 1990 and Lang et al., 1997), whereas the aversive motivational system (e.g. BIS) is involved in the generation of negative affect (Gray, 1982, Gray, 1994a, Gray, 1994b, Lang et al., 1990 and Lang et al., 1997). Much theory and research suggest that the BAS is associated with positive affect. Theoretically, Gray, 1990, Gray, 1994b and Watson, 2000 have linked the BAS with positive affect. In support of these ideas, Carver and White (1994) found that individuals high in BAS responded with more happiness when confronted with a challenging task. They also found that trait positive affect was positively associated with BAS. Other research has demonstrated that individuals high in BAS evidence greater left than right frontal cortical activity, as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power, during baseline resting sessions (Harmon-Jones and Allen, 1997 and Sutton and Davidson, 1997). These findings are consistent with the idea that the BAS is related to positive affect, as other research has demonstrated that greater relative left frontal activity is associated with greater positive affect and less depression (Henriques and Davidson, 1990, Henriques and Davidson, 1991 and Tomarken et al., 1992). Also, greater relative left frontal activity has been associated with more positive affective reports to happy film clips (Davidson, Ekman, Saron, Senulis, & Friesen, 1990). The idea that the approach motivation system (e.g. BAS) is responsible for the creation of only affects of positive hedonic tone is a view widely accepted in much contemporary theorizing (Cacioppo and Berntson, 1994, Cacioppo et al., 1999, Lang et al., 1990, Lang et al., 1997, Watson, 2000 and Watson et al., 1999). Although the BAS may be involved in the generation of positive affective responses, it is also possible that the BAS may be responsible for negative affective responses when these responses are associated with behavioral approach. Indeed, the primary function of the BAS is approach motivation, and approach motivation can be associated with negative affect. As Carver (2001) has recently reviewed, the negative affect of sadness occurs when individuals fail to meet approach oriented goals. In contrast, the negative affect of anxiety occurs when individuals fail to meet avoidance oriented goals (see e.g. Finlay-Jones, 1981 and Higgins et al., 1997). Other research is consistent with the idea that the BAS is associated with approach-related but negative affect. In particular, research has revealed that relative left frontal cortical activity, a putative correlate of BAS, is associated with anger, which is often associated with approach motivation (see Harmon-Jones & Sigelman, 2001, for a review). That is, research has demonstrated that increased left frontal cortical activity and decreased right frontal cortical activity are associated with trait anger (Harmon-Jones & Allen, 1998) and state anger (Harmon-Jones and Sigelman, 2001 and Harmon-Jones et al., in press). In addition, individuals with proneness toward mania, who have been found to have high levels of BAS (Meyer, Johnson, & Carver, 1999), evidence increased left frontal and decreased right frontal activity in response to anger-provoking situations (Harmon-Jones, Abramson, Sigelman, Bohlig, Hogan, & Harmon-Jones, 2002). Also consistent with the idea of BAS being positively related to anger, Corr (2002) has suggested that in humans high levels of BAS should be associated with higher expectancies for rewards, which should cause higher levels of frustration upon termination or reduction of the magnitude of reward (see also Carver, 2001, Mikulincer, 1988 and Wortman and Brehm, 1975). While this recent research strongly suggests that the BAS is associated with the negative affect of anger, the conclusion is tenuous, as it is only through triangulation that the BAS is associated with anger. In other words, no direct link has been identified between the BAS and anger. To more convincingly demonstrate that the BAS is associated with anger, evidence needs to be provided that demonstrates that other measures of the BAS and anger are related. To address this issue, two studies were conducted in which the BAS and anger were measured using established, well-accepted, and face-valid measures. Individual differences in BAS were predicted to be associated with individual differences in anger, such that high levels of BAS would be associated with high levels of anger. In addition to measuring BAS and anger, individual differences in general activated positive affect, general activated negative affect, and BIS were measured, to assess relationships of these constructs with anger and BAS. Based on past research (e.g. Carver & White, 1994), it was predicted that BAS would be associated with positive affect and that BIS would be associated with negative affect. It was also predicted that although anger is associated with BAS, it may also be associated with BIS, through BIS's connection with general negative affect. Because anger is associated with general negative affect (Berkowitz, 1999, Berkowitz, 2000 and Watson, 2000), it may also be associated with BIS because of the positive association of BIS and general negative affect. That is, the affect of anger has two subcomponents: a nonspecific component that reflects the contribution of general negative affect (Berkowitz, 1999; Watson, 2000) and a more specific component that reflects the unique qualities of anger (Watson, 2000). In other words, at the simple correlation level, anger may be associated with BIS, but when controlling for negative affect, anger will not be associated with BIS but will only be associated with BAS. To test these predictions, two studies were conducted.