چگونه رفتار تکانشی، خشم صفت، و فعالیت های فوق ممکن است پرخاشگری در دانش آموزان را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33385||2008||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4791 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 45, Issue 7, November 2008, Pages 618–623
Individual differences in personality traits such as impulsivity and trait anger as well as environmental variables have an impact on aggressiveness. We tested a model incorporating the related variables of impulsiveness, trait anger, and aggression and incorporated the possible mediating influences of leisure-time activities. Regression analyses of data from 1129 pre-adolescents and 1093 adolescents (55.4% females) from a study evaluating the Spanish version of the Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire (AQ; Santisteban, Alvarado, & Recio, 2007) showed a relation between impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and aggression (AQ). Trait anger (Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory), the time spent watching TV and playing video games, and the time spent doing homework (all related to impulsiveness) also are related to physical, as well as verbal aggression (with low to moderate coefficients). Multiple mediation analyses confirm that media violence exposure and homework, respectively, can have aggravating and attenuating effects on self-reported aggression. These results provide key variables for longitudinal studies which could reveal the causal nature of the results found with our cross-sectional design.
Despite the considerable amount of evidence accumulating on the effects of media violence on aggressive behavior, controversy on this topic still exists (Anderson and Bushman, 2002a and Kutner and Olson, 2008). The influence of the time spent watching television on aggressive behavior has been widely reported in children, adolescents, and adults (Anderson and Bushman, 2002b, Bartholow et al., 2005, Bushman and Huesmann, 2006, Johnson et al., 2002, Joy et al., 1986 and Santisteban et al., 2007). Another form of entertainment that has acquired wide acceptance among youngsters is playing video games, which has also been related to aggressive behavior (Funk et al., 2004, Gentile et al., 2004 and Santisteban et al., 2007). Nevertheless, the scientific community is still debating the influence that TV and video games exert on people’s behavior (see, for example, Kids, TV viewing, and aggressive behavior (Letters). Science 297, July 5, 2002). Those who oppose the influential role of TV and video games on aggressive behavior claim that causality cannot easily be established since violent individuals are more likely to watch aggressive acts on TV and perform them in video games ( Olson, 2004). An attempt to reconcile both views is the notion of a bidirectional relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior, where both causal directions contribute to the associations found. Aggression can be defined as behavior intended to harm an individual when it is clear that he or she wants to avoid being harmed (Joireman, Anderson, & Strathman, 2003). Apparent aggressive behavior can only be explained by integrating a multitude of factors. For example, the general aggression model (GAM), encompasses three main factors that are active in any social interaction: (1) the individual and situational inputs, (2) the internal states of cognition, emotion, and arousal, and (3) the outcomes of decision processes that lead to either thoughtful or impulsive action (Anderson & Bushman, 2002b). Focusing on personality traits, a recent variant of this model postulates that aggressive behavior is founded on individual differences, such as impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and considering future consequences (Joireman et al., 2003). The multidimensionality of impulsiveness has resulted in a great variety of behavioral and self-report instruments that, however, often lack significant inter-correlations (Arce and Santisteban, 2006 and Wittmann and Paulus, 2008). One definition we shall use here is that impulsiveness is a behavior defined as responding to a stimulus without appropriately evaluating its consequences (Gerbing, Ahadi, & Patton, 1987). In the context of aggression, the lack of impulse control is regarded as one determinant of aggressive behavior (Vigil-Colet & Codorniu-Raga, 2004). As opposed to non-impulsive aggressive acts, which are planned, premeditated, and instrumental for social gain and dominance, impulsive aggression is spontaneous, unprovoked, and out of proportion Barratt, Standford, Dowdy, Liebman, and Kent (1999). A main characteristic of the GAM model by Joireman and colleagues (2003) is that individual differences in hostility and anger mediate the relationship between personal traits, such as impulsiveness or sensation seeking, and aggression. Thus, only individuals who are anger prone will translate impulsive urges into verbal or physical aggression. In extending this three-part structure of aggressive behavior (impulsiveness → trait anger → aggression) and applying it to pre-adolescents and adolescents, we attempted to include variables that can promote or reduce aggression and are related to activities after school. Environmental factors, such as exposure to violent media, can change the knowledge structure of an individual (perceptual and person schemata, behavioral scripts), produce a desensitization effect in the long run, and lead to more aggressive behavior (Anderson & Bushman, 2002b). Besides the aggression-promoting influence of virtual violence, effects of aggression reduction through certain mediators are possible. Studies reveal that antisocial behavior and aggression are negatively correlated with academic achievement (Barriga et al., 2002 and Williams and McGee, 1994). Aggression has also been related to low reading abilities (Barrera et al., 2002 and Davis et al., 1999). Impulsive children have poorer selective attention, deficient reading skills, and show more often aggressive social behavior (Thompson, Teare, & Elliott, 1983). Furthermore, it has specifically been shown that impulsiveness scores are negatively related to success at school, e.g., doing well in reading and mathematics tests (Merrell and Tymms, 2001 and VigilColet and MoralesVives, 2005). Thus, the current literature suggests that the time spent doing homework and leisure reading is associated with lower impulsiveness and aggression. Keeping in mind the bi-directionality of this association, it is possible that pursuing these activities at home could attenuate the effects of impulsiveness on aggression. In our model depicted in Fig. 1, we assume that, aside from an effect of impulsiveness on aggression, anger-trait will have an influence on aggression. In addition, exposure to media (TV, video games) may aggravate aggression, whereas doing homework and reading books presents an attenuating influence. Impulsivity, on the other hand, might be related to anger as a trait as well as affecting activities done at home. More impulsive individuals will be more likely to watch TV and play video games and be less inclined to do their homework and read books. We were specifically interested in developmental aspects of the discussed relationships (differences between adolescents and pre-adolescents), as well as in replicating and expanding knowledge of sex differences in the assessed variables, especially in aggression, i.e., that men are more readily involved in physical aggressive behavior than women (Bjorkqvist, 1994 and Ramirez et al., 2002).