تکرار غیرکلمه ای و حذف حرف صوتی در بزرگسالان که لکنت زبان دارند و ندارند:تفاوت های عملکردی صوتی در مقابل تفاوت های عملکردی غیرصوتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33577||2015||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Fluency Disorders, Volume 44, June 2015, Pages 17–31
Purpose The purpose of the present study was to enhance our understanding of phonological working memory in adults who stutter through the comparison of nonvocal versus vocal nonword repetition and phoneme elision task performance differences. Method For the vocal nonword repetition condition, participants repeated sets of 4- and 7-syllable nonwords (n = 12 per set). For the nonvocal nonword repetition condition, participants silently identified each target nonword from a subsequent set of three nonwords. For the vocal phoneme elision condition, participants repeated nonwords with a target phoneme eliminated. For the nonvocal phoneme elision condition, participants silently identified the nonword with the designated target phoneme eliminated from a subsequent set of three nonwords. Results Adults who stutter produced significantly fewer accurate initial productions of 7-syllable nonwords compared to adults who do not stutter. There were no talker group differences for the silent identification of nonwords, but both talker groups required significantly more mean number of attempts to accurately silently identify 7-syllable as compared to 4-syllable nonwords. For the vocal phoneme elision condition, adults who stutter were significantly less accurate than adults who do not stutter in their initial production and required a significantly higher mean number of attempts to accurately produce 7-syllable nonwords with a phoneme eliminated. This talker group difference was also significant for the nonvocal phoneme elision condition for both 4- and 7-syllable nonwords. Conclusion Present findings suggest phonological working memory may contribute to the difficulties persons who stutter have establishing and/or maintaining fluent speech. Educational Objectives: (a) Readers can describe the role of phonological working memory in planning for and execution of speech; (b) readers can describe two experimental tasks for exploring the phonological working memory: nonword repetition and phoneme elision; (c) readers can describe how the nonword repetition and phoneme elision skills of adults who stutter differ from their typically fluent peers.
Stuttering is largely considered to be a multifactorial disorder (e.g., Bloodstein and Bernstein Ratner, 2008, Conture, 2001, Guitar, 2013, Smith, 1999 and Yairi and Seery, 2011). There are significant data to suggest phonological encoding, the process of retrieving the sound segments in words prior to motor programming and execution (Levelt, 1989), is one of the many factors that contribute to the difficulties persons who stutter have establishing and/or maintaining fluent speech (e.g., Aboul Oyoun et al., 2010, Anderson, 2007, Anderson and Byrd, 2008, Bosshardt, 1993, Byrd et al., 2007 and Byrd et al., 2012; cf., Bakhtiar et al., 2007, Hakim and Ratner, 2004, Hennessey et al., 2008, Ludlow et al., 1997, Melnick et al., 2003, Nippold, 2002, Nippold, 2012, Ntourou et al., 2011, Pelczarski and Yaruss, 2014, Sasisekaran and Byrd, 2013, Sasisekaran and De Nil, 2006, Sasisekaran et al., 2006, Vincent et al., 2012 and Weber-Fox et al., 2004). For example, of the disorders that co-occur with stuttering, disorders of phonology are among the most frequent (Arndt and Healey, 2001, Louko et al., 1999 and Yaruss et al., 1998; cf., Nippold, 2001 and Nippold, 2012). Researchers have also suggested that the phonological representations of children who stutter may be underspecified (e.g., Anderson, 2007, Anderson and Byrd, 2008, Anderson and Wagovich, 2010, Anderson et al., 2006 and Hakim and Ratner, 2004). Furthermore, the incremental processing abilities of children who stutter do not appear to develop within the same timeframe of their typically fluent peers (Byrd et al., 2007) and the phonological encoding of adults who stutter appears to be uniquely compromised by increased cognitive demands (e.g., Bajaj, 2007, Bosshardt, 1990, Bosshardt, 1993, Jones et al., 2012, Sasisekaran and Weisberg, 2014 and Weber-Fox et al., 2004). This reduced speed and accuracy in encoding seen in overt speech tasks have also been revealed during nonvocal speech tasks (e.g., Brocklehurst and Corley, 2011, Postma et al., 1990 and Sasisekaran, 2013). Thus, together these results suggest that phonological deficits may extend beyond encoding to include other processes distinct to phonological working memory (see Bajaj, 2007 for review of phonological working memory and stuttering). In addition, among the studies that have been completed thus far, vocal indices of phonological working performance have been measured independently of nonvocal indices. The purpose of the present study is to enhance our understanding of the potential contribution of phonological working memory to stuttered speech by comparing nonvocal to vocal responses across tasks that, to date, have been explored with respect to vocal performance or nonvocal performance exclusively, as opposed to the two tasks in tandem. 1.1. Phonological working memory According to Baddeley (2003) working memory is comprised of the central executive and the three supporting systems: (1) phonological loop, (2) visuospatial sketchpad and (3) the episodic buffer. The function of the central executive and that of the phonological loop are critical to the present study as we are focusing on phonological working memory. The visuospatial sketchpad with its distinct application to the manipulation of visual information is not relevant to the present study and will not be discussed further. Similarly, the episodic buffer will not be discussed as this particular system binds information from various distinct sources into chunks or episodes; an application that was not enacted in the present study. The central executive is thought to support the retrieval and transfer of information from long-term memory to short-term memory and vice versa. The phonological loop is one of the supporting systems to the central executive and is comprised of the following two critical components: a phonological store and a subvocal rehearsal system. The phonological store facilitates the ability to hold material to be remembered in a phonological code. This phonological code is vulnerable to decay over time (i.e., trace will last approximately 2 s), hence the need for the subvocal rehearsal system. The subvocal rehearsal system is a silent verbal repetition process that refreshes the phonologically encoded material, allowing it to be preserved in memory for a longer period of time (>2 s). If persons who stutter demonstrate slowed initial encoding of phonological information, then the subsequent process of refreshing information would also be decreased as this process can only operate as quickly and efficiently as the information to be refreshed is provided. Alternatively, if there are distinct differences in the selection, programming and subsequent execution of speech (e.g., see Watkins, Smith, Davis, & Howell, 2008 for review of this perspective), then the covert articulatory rehearsal of words may be uniquely compromised in persons who stutter. Yet another consideration is that if persons who stutter have difficulty encoding phonological representations via short-term memory and/or accessing those representations via long-term memory, then perhaps differences reported in previous studies specific to phonological encoding may be reflective of central executive deficiencies. 1.2. Nonword repetition in adults who stutter Relatively few investigations have been completed within the stuttering literature with respect to phonological working memory. Of the studies that exist, those that have employed nonword repetition in adults will be reviewed for two key reasons. First, this particular task is thought to allow valuable insight into phonological working memory in isolation with minimal influence from long-term storage of phonological as well as semantic and lexical information. Second, this present study is a systematic replication of a nonword repetition study that we completed with adults who do and do not stutter (i.e., Byrd et al., 2012). Nonword repetition has been shown to differentiate adults who do not stutter from adults who stutter in a few ways. Ludlow et al. (1997) examined the nonword repetition abilities of adults who do and do not stutter by having the participants (n = 5 per group) repeat two four-syllable nonwords multiple times. Both groups exhibited a practice effect. That is, as both groups repeated the words, production accuracy improved. However, the degree of improvement differed. The percentage of consonants correct was still lower for adults who stutter than that of adults who do not stutter after multiple productions. The reported difference in practice effect lends support to the notion that persons who stutter have less efficient phonological encoding skills than persons who do not stutter. These results also support the perspective that persons who stutter have difficulty learning novel motor speech sequences. Smith, Sadagopan, Walsh, and Weber-Fox (2010) had 17 adults who do and do not stutter complete a nonword repetition paradigm wherein they first had to produce 16 nonwords, which varied from 1- to 4-syllables in length, from the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998). Participants from both talker groups did not differ in production accuracy across the 1- to 4-syllable lengths; they were comparably accurate in their productions at each length. Following the completion of the NRT, the adults in the Smith et al. study also repeated a new series of novel words, which were adapted from the NRT so as to include bilabial consonants. The new series of novel words varied in length (1- to 4-syllables) and phonological complexity and were embedded within a carrier phrase. The authors found that the accuracy with which the two groups of participants repeated the nonwords in this task was similar, at least on a descriptive basis. However, the adults who stutter exhibited more inconsistency in articulatory coordination during the production of longer (i.e., 3- and 4-syllable length), more phonologically complex nonwords compared to adults who do not stutter. The authors suggested that there is a critical interplay between phonological encoding and motoric stability in the speech production of adults who stutter. Byrd et al. (2012) employed a nonword repetition task as well as a phoneme elision task. Fourteen adults who stutter and fourteen adult nonstutterers listened to 48 nonwords, were provided multiple attempts at production to facilitate accuracy, and then were required to repeat the same set of nonwords with a designated sound missing. No difference was found for the phoneme elision task; this task was equally challenging for both talker groups. However, for the nonword repetition task, results showed repetition accuracy was comparable for the adults who do and do not stutter for the repetitions of 2–4 syllable words, but the adults who stutter required a higher mean number of attempts before accurate repetition of 7-syllable words. The authors attributed the significant findings for the nonword repetition task to suggest that there is a deficit in the subvocal rehearsal system of adults who stutter that is highlighted when the required productions are at lengths that are more challenging to recall. More recently, Sasisekaran and Weisberg (2014) investigated the nonword repetition accuracy of nonwords that varied specific to complexity and phonotactic constraint. Complexity was determined by whether the consonants were considered to be acquired early or late as well as by the number and type of consonant clusters. Four of the eight were considered to be complex; the other four were considered to be simple. Two of the eight were comprised of non-English clusters. The adults who stutter (n = 10) were less accurate in their repetition of these complex nonwords. Sasisekaran and Weisberg also reported that fewer adults who stutter than adults who do not stutter produced the required 4–5 correct productions needed to be able to complete the kinematic analyses. Additionally, the adults who stutter exhibited significant practice effects as measured by reduced movement variability for the 3-syllable nonwords, but did not demonstrate significant practice effects for the longer 4-syllable nonwords, rather the variability persisted. By comparison, their typically fluent peers easily produced/retained the 3-syllable nonwords and also demonstrated reduced movement variability for the 3 syllable words. Taken together, these data across the studies reviewed suggest that deficits in phonological working memory may be associated with the disorder of stuttering, but further exploration beyond production-based tasks is necessary to understand how these deficits manifest. 1.3. Purpose and hypotheses To date, analyses of nonword repetition performance in adults who stutter have been limited to overt speech tasks; as of yet, there has been no published study of vocal response versus nonvocal response performance differences in adults who stutter. Thus, the potential influence of motor deficits specific to reported findings of significance in nonword repetition performance cannot be ignored. For the present study, we systematically replicated our previous study (Byrd et al., 2012) by adding a nonvocal condition using the same stimuli. In specific, we employed the same vocal nonword repetition and phoneme elision tasks along with the addition of comparable nonvocal response nonword repetition and phoneme elision tasks. Vocal and nonvocal nonword repetition tested the ability of adults who stutter to recall phonological sequences, while vocal and nonvocal phoneme elision tested their ability to recall and manipulate the nonword into a new sequence by eliminating one phoneme. Analysis of performance in the nonvocal response conditions as compared to the vocal response conditions provided valuable insight into the phonological loop and subvocal rehearsal systems of adults who stutter, without the influences of overt motor speech movements. We predicted that if phonological working memory is indeed compromised in adults who stutter, performance differences between adults who stutter and their typically fluent peers will exist for both the nonvocal response and vocal response tasks. Alternatively, if the demands of motor programming and/or execution required for speech output significantly interferes with the ability to retain the integrity of phonological information, we predicted adults who do and do not stutter will perform similarly on nonvocal nonword repetition and phoneme elision tasks with differences emerging only when talker groups are compared on the vocal nonword repetition and phoneme elision tasks.