عاطفه از بالا به پایین: چگونه عاطفه مثبت افراد قدرتمند، مذاکرات را شکل می دهد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33823||2004||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11793 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Volume 95, Issue 2, November 2004, Pages 125–139
We tested the hypothesis that the positive affect of powerful negotiators shapes the quality of negotiation processes and outcomes more than the positive affect of less powerful negotiators. Findings from two studies supported the hypothesis: powerful individuals' trait positive affect was the best predictor of negotiators' trust for each other and of whether they reached integrative outcomes. Positive affect predicted joint gains above and beyond negotiators' trait cooperativeness and communicativeness. However, positive affect was unrelated to distributive outcomes; thus, there were no observed disadvantages of being positively affective.
The use of power and the experience of affect are among the most fundamental aspects of social interactions. It is not surprising, therefore, that the study of negotiation behavior has begun to examine the effects of power on negotiated outcomes (e.g., Lawler & Yoon, 1993; Mannix, 1993a and Mannix, 1993b; Pinkley, Neale, & Bennett, 1994) and how affect shapes and is shaped by negotiations (for reviews, see Barry, Fulmer, & Van Kleef, in press; Morris and Keltner, 2000). What is surprising, perhaps, is that research on power and affect in negotiation have proceeded independently of one another, when in fact, they are often intimately related in social interactions (Anderson & Berdahl, 2002; Tiedens, 2001). In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that in power-asymmetric negotiations, the positive affect of the powerful negotiator shapes the process and outcome more than the positive affect of the less powerful negotiator. This hypothesis stems from recent analyses of the effects of power in face-to-face interactions (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003; Kramer, 1996), and from research on the benefits of positive emotion in negotiations (e.g., Carnevale & Isen, 1986; Forgas, 1998).