روند شناسایی شبکه ای عاطفه مثبت کاربران وب و حالات آنها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33826||2006||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4914 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2006, Pages 221–233
The correlations between positive affects and flow symptoms on the Web are analyzed in an attempt to increase our understanding of the positive aspects of Web users’ on-line behaviors. The digital version of the experience sampling method was employed to collect situated data from 233 Web users with a pop-up questionnaire on subjects’ Web browsers. This study concludes: (1) Web users are more likely to experience positive moods on the Web; (2) positivity of affects and enjoyable feelings are consequences of flow; (3) three factors underlying Web users’ flow experiences labeled as antecedents, experiences, and consequences represent the process that an individual could experience during his/her engagement on the Web. Findings in this study provide insights into Web users’ internal behaviors and the process of approaching optimal flow experience. In addition, the on-line experience sampling method was proven to be a useful and practical data collection tool.
The Web, a distributed multimedia environment, creates a virtual world allowing Web users to navigate, play, and experience pleasure inside that invisible space. With effortless movement in cyberspace, Web users may reach a state where their mind and action start to merge and their physical world begins to fade away. During these episodes, clock time ceases to be consistent with experienced time. When Web users’ minds flow in virtual space they tend to forget their mind states and their problems, and they tend to integrate themselves with keyboard, monitor, and cyberspace (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 2000). This state has been called flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975), or optimal experience. When in the flow state Web users are used to experiencing the fading away of their physical world and becoming the issue they are debating, the words they are typing, the sentences they are reading, or the machine they are working on (Chen et al., 2000). A Web user who is experiencing flow on the Web feels like there is no ‘me’, and that there is a merging of man and machine occurring. During flow episodes hours feel like minutes to Web users (Chen et al., 2000). These are typically enjoyable moments. The term ‘flow’ or ‘flow experience’ first appeared in 1975 (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). It was used to describe the most positive feelings (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) and the most enjoyable experiences possible in human lives as ‘the bottom line of existence’ (Csikszentmihalyi, 1982, p. 13). By definition, flow is the psychological state in which an individual feels cognitively efficient, motivated, and happy (Moneta & Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 277). As stressed by Csikszentmihalyi (1982, p. 13), if flow is absent from a person’s life, ‘there would be little purpose in living’. It strongly influences an individual’s subjective well-being (Diener, 1984) and improves a person’s happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect. When in the flow state people become absorbed in their activities, while irrelevant thoughts and perceptions are screened out. A flow state is characterized by enjoyable feelings, concentration, immersion, and intensive involvement. Csikszentmihalyi, 1996 and Csikszentmihalyi, 1993 defined the symptoms and phenomena of flow state as having nine dimensions: (1) clear goals, (2) immediate feedback, (3) personal skills well suited to given challenges, (4) merging of action and awareness, (5) concentration on the task at hand, (6) a sense of potential control, (7) a loss of self-consciousness, (8) an altered sense of time, and (9) experience which becomes autotelic. These nine flow dimensions may be used to describe a person’s flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). In accordance with the flow state described above, it is expected that using the Web, in some situations, may become an autotelic experience which makes the engagement intrinsically rewarding and may generate enjoyable feelings and improve Web users’ positive affects. Webster, Trevino, and Ryan (1993) has focused on the issues of the dimensionality (and correlates) of flow in human–computer interactions. They characterized flow in human–computer interaction as ‘playful and exploratory’ experiences and suggested that ‘systems that are designed to provide more user control, focus the users’ attention, and incite their cognitive enjoyment may result in more positive attitudes, more system use, and more positive work outcomes’. From a marketing perspective, Hoffman and Novak (1996) proposed that flow has a number of positive consequences, including increased consumer learning, exploratory behavior, and positive affect. According to the results of a previous flow study (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 1999), about 40% of Web users had experienced some flow symptoms and that more than 80% of Web users have had enjoyable feelings on the Web. Clarke and Haworth (1994) also indicate that enjoyment of the activity is an important element of flow. In our daily life, most activities in which we are engaged are exotelic, or extrinsically rewarding, because we do them for other intentional purposes, not for their own sake. After experiencing the flow state, autotelic, or intrinsic reward may become possible because doing the activity itself is fun and enjoyable and already provides enough motivation to do it. Since flow may lead to peak performance and self-actualization (Maslow, 1971 and Maslow, 1968), one would expect to find higher learning motivation, more positive learning behavior, more creativity, and increased self-esteem from a person who frequently experiences flow symptoms. One would also expect to find the state of Web playfulness when in flow. More importantly, one would expect to find a positively strong relationship between flow state and playfulness or enjoyment. Whereas using the Web is enjoyable and may lead to flow and optimal experience, the relationship between flow state and computer playfulness requires further exploration. By using an on-line data collection tool, this study will statistically explore and analyze the relations between computer playfulness and flow state. In short, this study will explore the following research questions: • Are flow states on the Web correlated with positive affects (e.g., enjoyment, or playfulness)? • Can flow states on the Web be used to predict Web users’ positive affects? • Which factors are underlying flow experiences on the Web?