مشکلات رفتاری کودکان فاستر و تکانشگری در زمینه خانواده و مدرسه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33971||2014||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5800 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 42, July 2014, Pages 43–49
This study analyzed foster carers' and teachers' assessments of behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention in 104 children in foster care (56 boys and 48 girls). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale—Revised were completed by foster parents, while the Teacher's Report Form (TRF) and the Conners' scale were completed by teachers. One of the main findings of the study was the high degree of agreement between foster carers' and teachers' views regarding externalizing problems. However, carers perceived more problems related to impulsivity/inattention than did teachers. Two further findings were that foster boys present more externalizing problems and impulsivity/inattention than do foster girls, and also that foster children with poor school performance exhibit more behavior problems and more impulsivity/inattention. Age, however, did not appear to influence the extent of behavior problems or impulsivity/inattention. These findings regarding behavioral problems and impulsivity/inattention in foster children suggest that these children, as well as their carers and teachers, should be regarded as key targets for support services.
Although there is a long tradition of non-kinship fostering in many Western countries, foster children in Spain have tended historically to be placed in residential care rather than with another family (López, Montserrat, Del Valle, & Bravo, 2010). However, Legislation in Spain, such as Law 1/96 of 15 January on the Legal Protection of Minors and its subsequent legal developments through a series of decrees (in the case of Andalusia, Decree 282/2002 of 12 November), has progressively sought to give greater priority to family fostering as opposed to other forms of child protection such as residential care. Indeed, family fostering is now considered one of the most suitable options in terms of children's emotional stability and wellbeing. So, the network of foster families is limited, and the strategy of placing children with a foster family is a relatively recent development. Non-kinship foster carers generally have an altruistic motivation (i.e., helping children in need), and very few of them act as professional foster carers. Although specialist foster care, professional foster care, emergency foster care, and some kinship foster care are remunerated, non-kinship foster carers do not generally receive payment. Non-kinship foster care has become more common in our country, although there remains a need for further research into the problems that these children experience within the foster family and at school. This study reviews the main findings regarding behavioral problems, impulsivity, and inattention among foster children and examines these problems in a sample of non-kinship foster children in Spain. Several studies have analyzed foster children's behavior problems, including impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity (Fernandez, 2008, Shore et al., 2002 and Tarren-Sweeney, 2008). However, few studies have analyzed behavior problems and impulsivity independently. The most widely used instruments for assessing behavior problems are the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach, 1991a) and its version for teachers, the Teacher's Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991b), although other instruments may also be applied (e.g., Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Studies of behavior problems that have used the CBCL and TRF show that children in non-kinship care score high on the Externalizing and Total problem (Bernedo et al., 2012, Fernandez, 2008, Lawrence et al., 2006 and Shore et al., 2002). Some research has compared carers' and teachers' assessments of children's behavior problems. Jiménez and Palacios (2009) found significant differences between the two, with the total score for perceived problems being higher among carers than teachers. Other studies have reported a high degree of agreement between the views of foster carers (CBCL) and teachers (TRF), although foster carers generally perceive more behavior problems in foster children than do teachers (Fernandez, 2008, McCauley and Trew, 2000 and Shore et al., 2002). Gil, Cerrato, Molero, and Ballester (2013), using the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992), also found that carers perceived foster children as being more aggressive and as showing more behavior problems. Similarly, Tarren-Sweeney, Hazell, and Carr (2004) obtained good agreement on the Total problems and Externalizing scale, but found a low correlation between the scores of foster parents and teachers for internalizing problems. Regarding gender differences, several studies (e.g., Tarren-Sweeney, 2008 and Wicks-Nelson and Israel, 2009) report that foster boys present more externalizing problems than do foster girls. However, these findings have not been corroborated by other studies (Heflinger et al., 2000, Jiménez and Palacios, 2009 and Vanderfaeillie et al., 2013). The age of foster children has also been related to their behavior problems. Heflinger et al. (2000) found that foster children had more behavior problems during mid-adolescence (12–15 years) than during early or late adolescence. However, several other studies (Sinclair et al., 2007, Sinclair, Wilson and Gibbs, 2005, Tarren-Sweeney, 2008 and Wicks-Nelson and Israel, 2009) have reported that the severity of behavior problems increases with age. In contrast to the above, other research (Sawyer et al., 2007 and Vanderfaeillie et al., 2013) has found no significant difference in the prevalence of behavior problems between children and adolescents. Regarding maltreatment, several studies (Tarren-Sweeney, 2008 and Tarren-Sweeney and Hazell, 2005) have found that some types of maltreatment are significantly related to behavior problems. More specifically, the experience of physical abuse has been shown to predict increased behavior problems (Rosenthal & Curiel, 2006). Similarly, Fuentes-Peláez (2010) observed that foster children who had been abused experience greater difficulty in adapting to a new school. Starting at a new school due to entering foster care, in addition to the adversity experienced by these children prior to foster care, can lead to a lack of motivation, attention problems, difficulties in accepting limits, and disruptive behavior. Studies indicate that foster children have significantly more behavior problems and perform significantly worse at school than do children from the general population (Fernandez, 2008, Lawrence et al., 2006, Shore et al., 2002, Sinclair et al., 2007, Tarren-Sweeney, 2008 and Zetlin et al., 2005). Fernandez (2008) found that only 20% of foster children were in the school year that corresponded to their age. Also with regard to school performance, Del Valle, López, Montserrat, and Bravo (2008) reported that around 57% of children in care showed “serious problems” or “some problems” in adapting to school life. Similarly, Sinclair, Baker, Wilson, and Gibbs (2005) found that those children with more behavior problems on the social level had greater difficulties relating to others, more problems with their peers, and poorer academic performance. Several studies have found a significant prevalence of impulsivity and inattention problems in foster children (Garland et al., 2001, McMillen et al., 2005, Oswald et al., 2010 and Pecora et al., 1999). However, the results regarding the percentage of foster children with inattention/hyperactivity disorders are far from consistent. For example, Steele and Buchi (2008) found that 10% of foster children had problems of hyperactivity/inattention, whereas other authors have reported much higher rates, ranging between 20% and 45% (Burge, 2007, McMillen et al., 2005 and Minnis et al., 2006). Few studies have analyzed hyperactivity problems in foster children from a teacher's point of view. Nonetheless, research has found that low levels of inhibitory control in childhood can make it difficult to regulate behavior in social contexts, such that children with difficulties of this kind often present more externalizing problems at school, as well as poorer academic performance and greater difficulties interacting with peers (Berlin and Bohlin, 2002, Biederman et al., 2004 and Zima et al., 2000). Shore et al. (2002) reported more attention problems among foster children than in the general population. In terms of foster carers' and teachers' perceptions, Gil et al. (2013) note that foster carers perceive more attention disorder in foster children than do teachers. Another variable that has been linked to problems of impulsivity/inattention is the child's age when first fostered. The study by Tarren-Sweeney (2008) found that the older the children were when entering foster care, the more problems of impulsivity/inattention they presented. However, subsequent regression analyses revealed that this variable was not a predictor of these problems, whereas other variables such as male gender and academic difficulties were. Some studies have demonstrated an association between behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention. Most foster children lacked adequate care prior to joining their foster family, and this can lead to problems of self-regulation and, consequently, more disturbed behavior. As Kreppner, O'Connor, and Rutter (2001) point out, early deprivation and lack of care produce increased levels of impulsivity/inattention, which in turn are associated with emotional and behavior problems as the child grows up. In this context, Kim and Cicchetti (2010) showed that the lowest rates of internalizing behavior problems corresponded to those children with the greatest capacity for emotional regulation, whereas poor emotional regulation was associated with higher rates of externalizing problems. The present study considers the views of both foster carers and teachers in order to examine how well children in non-kinship care adapt to family and school life. Few studies to date have examined teacher feedback on the behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention of foster children, and very little research has analyzed behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention independently. The general aim of this study was therefore to provide a more comprehensive account of these issues. Specifically, the goals of the study were as follows: 1) to analyze the severity of behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention among foster children; 2) to compare the perceptions of their foster carers and their teachers; and 3) to determine whether age, gender, maltreatment and poor performance at school are associated with behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The occurrence of behavior problems in foster children has been extensively studied. However, few studies have focused specifically on problems of impulsivity/inattention and on teachers' perspectives regarding children in foster care. This study examined these aspects by administering the CBCL to foster carers, the TRF to teachers, and the Conners' Rating Scale to both foster carers and teachers. It also compared the assessments by foster carers and teachers, and analyzed whether age, gender, and poor performance at school are associated with behavior problems and impulsivity/inattention. One of the main findings of this study is although there was a high degree of agreement between foster carers' and teachers' views regarding externalizing problems, teachers perceived more internalizing problems than did foster carers. A further finding was that foster carers perceived more problems of impulsivity and inattention than did teachers. The evidence on behavioral problems and impulsivity/inattention in foster children suggests that foster children and carers are particularly in need of support. Indeed, many studies (e.g., Luke and Sebba, 2013 and Warman et al., 2006) note the importance which foster parents ascribe to the support they receive from other foster carers. Carers support and talk to one another, seeking practical advice from those with similar experiences, and the sense of mutual support reminds them that they are not alone (Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare Inc., 2007, The Fostering Network, 2009 and Wilson et al., 2004). The present results also highlight the need to design school intervention programs to help foster children adapt to the school environment and to facilitate the work of teachers. As noted by Fernández-Molina (2010), teachers receive very little training in addressing the needs of foster children. Although social workers may provide teachers with support within the school context, they should be better prepared to meet the needs of pupils in foster care.