ابعاد مشخص تکانشگری ها متفاوت با مصرف سیگار روزانه و غیر روزانه در افراد جوان همراه است
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33980||2015||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3793 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Addictive Behaviors, Volume 46, July 2015, Pages 82–85
Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18–24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.
Entry into college is a period of increased vulnerability to a variety of risk-related behaviors (e.g. Fromme, Corbin, & Kruse, 2008), including cigarette smoking. Up to 25% of college students begin smoking after turning eighteen (Everett et al., 1999 and Foldes et al., 2010), and approximately 28% of college students who smoke intermittently escalate to heavier patterns of use at the age of nineteen or older (Wechsler, Rigotti, Gledhill-Hoyt, & Lee, 1998). However, it is important to note that not every young adult who initiates smoking transitions to daily use (Henningfield et al., 2003), and intermittent, or non-daily smoking is prevalent in young adult cigarette smokers (Berg et al., 2012 and Sutfin et al., 2009). Nevertheless, while the negative health-related effects of smoking are greatest in those who smoke daily, non-daily smokers are also at risk for increases in negative health-related effects (Caldeira et al., 2012 and Schane et al., 2010) and have similar relapse rates as daily smokers during cessation attempts (Tindle & Shiffman, 2011). Given the host of health problems associated with tobacco use, including non-daily smoking, it is critical to understand risk factors that predict these different patterns of tobacco use in young adults transitioning to college to better guide prevention and treatment efforts. Impulsivity, broadly defined, is associated with multiple aspects of cigarette smoking behavior (i.e. initiation and dependence); however, given the multidimensional nature of impulsivity, identifying the key components contributing to tobacco use is crucial. The UPPS model of impulsivity (Lynam et al., 2006 and Whiteside and Lynam, 2001) includes five distinct pathways to impulsive and risky behavior (positive and negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking). Some of these dimensions appear to play specific roles in the etiology of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. For instance, sensation seeking (defined as the tendency to enjoy and pursue exciting, risky activities) is associated with initiation of cigarette smoking (e.g. Lipkus et al., 1994 and Perkins et al., 2008), greater positive effects of nicotine (Perkins, Gerlach, Broge, Grobe, & Wilson, 2000), positive dimensions of craving (craving the positive effects of nicotine; Doran, Cook, McChargue, & Spring, 2009), status as a current smoker (Spillane, Smith, & Kahler, 2010), and initiation of daily smoking in high school (Spillane et al., 2012). Negative and positive urgency (the tendency to engage in rash action in response to strong negative or positive affective experiences, respectively) however, are both associated with tobacco dependence (Pang et al., 2014 and Spillane et al., 2010), and negative urgency is associated with dimensions of tobacco craving (craving relief from the negative effects of tobacco deprivation; Billieux et al., 2007 and Doran et al., 2009). Taken together, this evidence suggests that sensation seeking is associated with tobacco initiation and status as a current smoker, whereas urgency is more closely associated with heavier use and tobacco dependence. While there is substantial evidence that dimensions of impulsivity, particularly sensation seeking and urgency, influence consumption and problematic use patterns of cigarette use, the independent influence of these risk factors on smoking frequency (daily vs non-daily smoking) is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity dimensions and smoking behavior in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking, in order to better understand risk factors associated with non-daily and daily tobacco use prior to entry into college. It was hypothesized that UPPS-P impulsivity (specifically sensation seeking and urgency) would be positively correlated with smoking frequency. In addition, when all variables were simultaneously entered in the model, it was hypothesized that sensation seeking would predict membership in the non-daily smoking group, while urgency would predict membership in daily smoking group, compared to both non-daily and non-smokers. This pattern of results would suggest that specific dimensions impulsivity primarily contribute to different forms of cigarette smoking behavior.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Despite the limitations of the study, these results demonstrate that lack of premeditation and negative urgency are differentially associated with frequency of tobacco use in young adults. Lack of premeditation and negative urgency may be specific risk factors for the development of these patterns of smoking behavior, although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causal influence of UPPS impulsivity dimensions on the progression of smoking behavior (or vice versa). Given the health risks of engaging in tobacco smoking and the poor cessation rates among non-daily and daily smokers, it is important to provide effective prevention and early intervention efforts aimed at curbing problematic tobacco use. Focusing on risk factors such lack of premeditation and negative urgency and tailoring interventions based on smoking frequency may increase the effectiveness of tobacco prevention and cessation efforts.