موافقان و مخالفان پذیرش تجارت الکترونیک B2B در سنگاپور
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3410||2004||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 42, Issue 1, December 2004, Pages 89–102
Although there has been an increase in research studies of business-to-business (B2B) electronic commence (e-commerce), most studies were carried out in the United States or Europe. There are very limited studies on B2B e-commerce in the Asian context. Our effort examined Web-based B2B e-commerce initiatives in Singapore, an island of 650 km2 in South–East Asia. Data were collected from 108 firms using a mail survey, which showed that 52.8% firms have adopted B2B e-commerce; of these, two-third had a formal plan and/or task force for B2B e-commerce deployment. Customer-related applications were generally more common than supplier-related applications. Problems in B2B e-commerce adoption included the difficulty of measuring benefits, fear of granting suppliers and customers access to corporate systems and insufficient time for staff to develop new skills in e-commerce. Implications of the results are discussed.
The term “e-commerce” emerged only a few years ago when businesses started to realize the role of the Internet as a powerful medium for conducting business. Researchers believe that e-commerce on the Internet goes beyond simply buying and selling electronically as it involves a wide variety of pre- and post-sales activities, such as advertising, maintaining business relationships, and enhancing business communication  and . At the core of e-commerce, however, is the use of electronic means to expedite commercial transactions and improve efficiencies in business processes within and across organizations . Based on the parties involved in the business transaction, e-commerce can be divided into: 1.business-to-customer (B2C): the sale of products and services to individuals; and 2.business-to-business (B2B): the buying and selling of products and services among businesses. In this paper, we focus on B2B e-commerce, which has become an increasingly important topic for both researchers and practitioners. Despite the failure of hundreds of B2B exchanges since the dot-com crash in early 2000, businesses are plunging ahead with B2B e-commerce . In fact, eMarketer predicted that global B2B e-commerce will reach US$ 2.77 trillion by 2004 . This paper is an exploratory, descriptive study that attempts to understand the current trends and business practices in B2B e-commerce in Singapore. There are at least three distinct motivations underlying our study. First, while there were numerous market research reports and anecdotal case studies on B2B e-commerce , there was very limited knowledge on the managerial mechanisms and business practices that firms were using to conduct B2B e-commerce. Second, there were very limited studies on B2B e-commerce that have been conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. Third, our goal was to examine, report, and contribute to the B2B e-commerce practices in Singapore organizations; those adopting B2B e-commerce was increasing and we wanted to document their experiences to provide guidelines to others in their B2B initiatives. Here, we define B2B e-commerce as the use of the Internet and Web-technologies for conducting inter-organizational business transactions. Our focus was on initiatives of traditional brick-and-mortar firms and we sought to understand how they apply Web technologies for conducting inter-organizational business transactions. We did not explicitly focus on independent e-marketplaces or exchanges operated by pure dot-com players. Therefore, our study focused on initiatives by traditional firms in Singapore rather than pure “Internet” dot-com players. Singapore was an ideal location to examine this, as its technology infrastructure was well developed  and ideal for B2B e-commerce adoption. Singapore also has one of the highest Internet penetration rate in the world, since more than half the population is “Internet savvy.” Further, the Singapore government had been very active in promoting the adoption of e-commerce among government agencies and businesses.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
While B2B e-commerce has been widely discussed, little empirical knowledge existed of the B2B e-commerce practices being followed by industry. This study provided some insights on B2B e-commerce practices in Singapore. Our results indicated a moderate level of B2B adoption, with about 52.8% adopters and 47.2% non-adopters in the sample. Further, B2B e-commerce appeared to have diffused across different industries, though most adopters came from services firms. As expected, government-owned firms appeared to take the lead in B2B e-commerce adoption in Singapore, in contrast to developed countries such as the United States where the private sector usually takes the lead in the adoption of new innovation. Interestingly, the level of IT investments rather than annual revenue was strongly related with B2B e-commerce adoption. This implied that B2B e-commerce adoption often required the firm to commit a certain level of resources to its deployment. In addition, adopter firms were more likely to have a champion for e-commerce; this is consistent with the IS literature. Hence, potential adopter firms need to realize that a strong champion is necessary to spearhead and facilitate the B2B e-commerce efforts. In addition, the results indicated that customer-oriented applications were more common than supplier-related ones. This is consistent with  where firms have increasingly realized the importance of meeting and exceeding customer expectations in order to survive in an increasingly competitive landscape. Further, the assessment of expected and realized benefits indicated that many firms have not achieved their expected benefits. This may indicate that they often take some time to be achieved. Further, Chau and Hui  found that perceived indirect benefits do not significantly affect the likelihood of EDI adoption. This suggests that top management is often interested in direct rather than indirect benefits from IT or e-commerce investments. For policy makers and software providers, this study provides insights as to why some firms do not adopt B2B e-commerce. By understanding the reasons behind non-adoption, appropriate measures and incentives system can be better designed to encourage B2B e-commerce adoption. Further, the ranking of problems enables potential adopters to focus their attention on key problems in deploying B2B e-commerce.