شناسایی تفاوت های جنسیتی در اثر مستقل شخصیت و سلامت روانی در در دوجزء عاطفی رفاه ذهنی گسترده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|34562||2010||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4736 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 22–27
Subjective well-being (SWB) is defined in terms of positive and negative affect whilst psychological well-being (PWB) reflects self-referent attitudes of mastery and self-acceptance. Whilst both SWB and PWB are associated with personality, concurrent analysis is limited. This study (n = 679) reports on a teacher sample in which personality, SWB and PWB were measured. Results indicated moderate correlations between variables. Hierarchical regression controlled for personality and identified PWB as a significant predictor of SWB. Separate predictors of negative and positive affect support the need to assess both SWB affective components. As the most significant predictor of positive affect the inclusion of PWB is needed in future well-being research.
Considerable effort has sought to extend notions of well-being and wellness as the absence of ill-being states, with psychological constructs such as self-concept, mastery, and resilience that have been demonstrated as important components of positive well-being (e.g. Burns, 1979). Increasingly, findings that identify the impact of such positive psychology constructs are informing government policy on health and well-being (e.g. Huppert, 2008). Two main approaches to the study of well-being have been described (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The subjective well-being (SWB) approach focuses on those experiences that make life either enjoyable or unpleasant. The identification of two broad affect states, positive and negative affect, has been well supported (e.g. Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and increased pleasant and decreased negative valence states typically defines optimal SWB (Vittersø, 2001). The need to discern between these affect states is important. For example, the negative affect and anxiety/depression link is well established (e.g. Watson et al., 1988), and the importance of positive emotions in broadening and expanding individuals’ cognitive and behavioural tendencies, has been reported (Fredrickson, 2003). Other important facets of SWB are related to its degree of temporal stability. Dynamic Equilibrium Theory (DET) proposes that SWB states are malleable to life events and experiences (Headey & Wearing, 1989), but that changes in affect generally return to their set-point level (Kahneman, 1999), a significant proportion of which appears genetically pre-determined (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996). However, much DET research has used life satisfaction measures which fail to describe different affective components, and much cross-sectional and longitudinal data fails to capture the extent and duration of changes from set-point levels. Consequently, the extent genetics determine SWB is likely over-estimated (Huppert, 2005). Headey (2008) has recently argued that DET describes SWB for most, although for a significant minority high in extraversion and/or neuroticism, long-term changes in life satisfaction can be substantial. In contrast to SWB, the psychological well-being (PWB) approach emphasises characteristics which are related to optimal SWB. Due to the reactive nature of SWB components, where variability would make them poor indicators of long-term wellness, PWB proponents (e.g. Ryff & Singer, 1998) have challenged SWB as limited in describing long-term positive functioning, and a fallible indicator of healthy living. PWB may function as a predictor of extent and duration of SWB reactivity. Ryff (1989) operationalised a multi-dimensional model of PWB that tapped six related concepts of well-being, including autonomy, personal growth, self-acceptance, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and positive relations with others, which are seemingly more temporally stable (Ryff & Singer, 1998). This clash of well-being paradigms has led to differing definitions of wellness and different issues concerning the causes, consequences, and dynamics of well-being, yet terms like affect, well-being and personality are frequently cited topics (e.g. Schmutte & Ryff, 1997). However, the extension of the well-being-personality literature with PWB models is less detailed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study has demonstrated that after controlling for personality and demographic effects, PWB appears to be a significant factor in determining SWB. PWB’s importance lies in providing a direction for interventions that by focusing on developing facets of individuals’ PWB, may instil longer-lasting attitudinal changes that engender feelings of vigour and lessen emotional reactivity to environmental triggers. Future longitudinal research should be designed to capture SWB’s dynamic nature and identify the roles personality and PWB play in determining SWB reactivity.