مفاهیم فناوری، امنیت و سیاست مشارکت اقیانوس اطلس آینده در فضا : درسهایی از گالیله
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3457||2008||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9120 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research Policy, Volume 37, Issue 9, October 2008, Pages 1630–1642
Policy makers seek to identify an institutional framework that facilitates the commercialization of publicly funded R&D, while simultaneously addressing innovation market failure. In the space industry, the formation of such a framework is complicated by national security considerations and the fact that numerous sovereign nations are often included in the commercialization process. This paper analyses how multi-public partnerships with industry can promote commercially viable space programs, resolve market failures, and address transatlantic security concerns. The benefits and policy implications of the formation of such transatlantic multi-public–private partnerships (TMP3) are illustrated based on a case study of the design of a major European public–private project in the space industry: the Galileo space-based navigation system.
In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the incidence of public–private research partnerships, which are designed to address market failures. The rise of this activity underscores the need for an institutional framework that facilitates the commercialization of publicly funded R&D, without creating long-term dependency on public funds. Although there is a substantial literature on such partnerships (see Hagedoorn et al., 2000 and Siegel and Zervos, 2002; also Lorell et al., 2002, for partnerships in defence), there has been little analysis of multi-public–private partnerships (henceforth, MP3) and especially, transatlantic multi-public–private partnerships (henceforth, TMP3). We fill this gap by outlining a framework relating to key objectives and public concerns for potential partners in multi-public–private partnerships. This framework incorporates security aspects, as well as more ‘conventional’ objectives and concerns. We illustrate the use of this framework by using Galileo as a case study to examine whether such a transatlantic partnership would have resulted in advantages over European-only MP3 and under what conditions transatlantic partnerships are likely to form. The objectives and success of this partnership depend on the objectives of both the private and public sector in several nations and thus could identify factors that prevented Galileo from becoming a successful public–private partnership. More generally, we assess possible economic and security benefits from the formation of transatlantic partnerships for similar future programs, as well as the challenges that transatlantic multi-public–private partnerships (TMP3) might encounter. We also consider the policy implications of such transatlantic collaborations. These are critical, given the complex nature of the political and economic issues that emerge from this framework. In the case of space R&D, these issues are further complicated by security concerns and national and regional economic interests. Our objective in this paper is to assess how multi-public–private partnerships can address market failures, while simultaneously addressing the security and economic concerns of participating nations. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. The following section analyses the evolution of market failures and public–private partnerships in space. Section 3 contains a detailed description of the Galileo project, followed by lessons learned from the failing of the public–private partnership that was intended to develop, deploy and operate the program. A more general consideration of objectives and concerns in multi-public–private partnerships is presented in Section 4, based on the lessons learned. Section 5 discusses the case for future transatlantic technology policy coordination in space. The final section consists of conclusions and suggestions for additional research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper, we have developed a framework that considers how market failures can be addressed by future transatlantic partnerships, drawing lessons learned from the case-study of Galileo. Galileo has received public funding through a European multi-public partnership at the R&D phase, with private partners expected to take over the project at the operational phase. In the case of Galileo, these issues were also relevant, but there was an added concern: national security. The partnership failed in 2007, owing to several critical problems, both within the partnership as well as from the strategic nature of the industry in terms of the competitive environment and the security implications. During both phases, the respective partners were shown to be geographically confined and controlled in Europe. US participation at either phase would have proven beneficial for the project and the respective markets, as this could avoid duplication in R&D, improve market access and diminish the possibility of further commercialization and competition from the US GPS. Another key spin-off, had a transatlantic multi-public–private partnership materialized, should have been the reduced security concerns for the use, sales strategy and access to ‘sensitive’ radio-navigation products. These problems proved critical for the partnership which ended up as a publicly funded program. A key issue identified relates to the lack of compatibility between US and European public partnership institutions. ESA's juste retour and the military significance of the US GPS appear as key factors behind the lack of a transatlantic partnership format for Galileo. Future novel technological programs with high commercialization potential could benefit greatly from the formation of transatlantic partnerships in space. This would require the involvement of both civil space agencies and private firms aiming at commercializing space-based technologies. An important gain from the development of such partnerships, in addition to the economic benefits extensively analysed in the PPP literature, is that TMP3 can potentially address security concerns. Participation benefits for the relevant public sectors include access to development of relevant systems and security enhancement through participation in joint programs. The formation of a TMP3 could therefore prove much easier for high-technology and security-sensitive programs, given its potential benefits in terms of both economics and security, as opposed to PPPs. For space programs such as Galileo, this might have avoided costly space competition, while allowing for commercialization within a multi-public controlled environment, in terms of security.