فن آوری پیشرفته تولید و تغییر سازمانی برنامه ریزی شده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3475||2000||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Journal of High Technology Management Research, Volume 11, Issue 1, Spring 2000, Pages 1–18
Developing countries like India, where technological change is the thrust in manufacturing industries, have introduced advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) to have competitive edge in the global market. Despite the claims that attractive benefits can accrue through the use of AMT in manufacturing firms, only modest benefits are reported. The superior performance of AMT firm in terms of maximum labor productivity, superior quality, and high customer satisfaction has not been achieved. Firms in which AMT has already been introduced have not progressed to higher levels of AMT to achieve manufacturing prosperity. The main reasons attributed to how performance are human factors in the implementation of AMT that have been overshadowed and organizational structure of AMT firm, which remains mechanistic in the changed environment. This paper presents a framework to illustrate low superior performance can be achieved by a planned change process. A set of propositions is offered suggesting that superior performance will result when there is a positive change in work attitudes as a result of elimination of psychological barriers to technological change and change in organizational structure compatible with new technology by a planned change process.
Manufacturing industries play a vital role in the growth of developing countries as they support a high standard of living. Indian manufacturing has been affected by the new environment that has replaced the old protective world. The firms that operate in developing countries face many uncertainties when they venture into global market. Exposure to global competition reveals that Indian Manufacturing can no longer be a simple conversion of raw material into goods, but a process of conversion constantly reinventing itself. Realizing the need to reduce manufacturing costs, improve quality, and respond to the changing needs of customers, many firms have introduced advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) in the existing resources. Despite the claims that attractive benefits can accrue through the use of AMT in manufacturing firms, only modest benefits are reported (Virmani, 1990). The superior performance of AMT firm, in terms of higher productivity, superior quality, and high customer satisfaction has not been achieved. Although AMT is known for the improvement of product quality, reliable production, and reduction of manufacturing cost, Indian manufacturing firms are not anywhere near any far-reaching effects of manufacturing prosperity. Many firms that have already introduced AMT have not progressed to its higher levels, which would lead to fast and on-time delivery, rapid product mix, developing new product, and consistent quality of products (Nemetz & Fry, 1988). Analysis of the performance of AMT firms in the past has lead to the following quarries. Will the firms be able to survive and adjust to continuously changing environment? More specifically, can they meet the challenge of implementing AMT in a traditional environment in which the ability to adopt new technology has become the measure of success? Only a few studies has been done to investigate the organizational changes consequent to implementation of MT in the context of developing economy. This paper explores the issues related to the implementation of AMT and suggests approaches to achieve superior performance by planned change process. First, a brief review of current literature in the area of technological changing environment and organizational change is presented. Then a framework is proposed for incorporating the influential role of AMT in the change of organizational structure and employees' attitude. Superior performance will result when the employees' attitude to work under AMT becomes more positive as a result of accepting AMT and change in structure. We then offer propositions on technology-structure—employees' relationship emanating from the framework that provides the basis for future research and for theory formations on technology management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The organizational change consequent to the implementation of AMT on organizational structure, employees, and performance has been mentioned in the production management literature. The technology management literature, however, lacks a body of research studies to validate these claims in developing economy. The framework developed in this article presents the inter-relationship among the variables technology, structure, and employees with intervening variable planned change that could be analyzed and empirically investigated. Following the evolutionary model of technology and the evolutionary nature of implementation of technology, this article presents a dynamic framework that suggests a planned change process could be a driving force to achieve superior performance. The framework suggests that adoption of AMT will not also ifso facto guarantee performance but will further require appropriate changes in the firm's structure and its employees' behavior. The framework will serve as a model to implement AMT in existing resources. When operationalized, the research findings should provide a basis for creation of theory that will explain the psychological barriers to technological change among employees and the ways by which the barriers could be eliminated by a planned change process. Research based on this framework should also provide a base for developing an organic structure for AMT. As technology is linked to competitive advantage of many manufacturing firms, the implementation of AMT in the existing resources should be carried out with planned change. The importance of technology-structure-employees and the fit between them in the modern manufacturing firms can be understood within this frame work in the context of global competition.Battachary 1988, Brod 1988, Fincham Rhodes 1993, Plant 1987, Quinn 1980 and Robbins 1994