پویایی زمانی تنظیم احساسات: مطالعه نوار مغزی از انحراف فکر و ارزیابی مجدد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|34925||2011||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8184 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Biological Psychology, Volume 87, Issue 1, April 2011, Pages 84–92
Distraction and reappraisal are two widely used forms of emotion regulation. The process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998) holds that they differ (1) in when they act on the emotion-generative process, and (2) in their impact on subsequent responses to regulated stimuli. We tested these two predictions by measuring electrocortical responses to neutral and emotional images during two phases. In the regulation phase, images were watched or regulated using distraction or reappraisal. During the re-exposure phase, the same images were passively watched. As predicted, during regulation, distraction reduced the late positive potential (LPP) earlier than reappraisal. Upon re-exposure, images with a distraction (but not reappraisal) history elicited a larger LPP than images with an attend history. This pattern of results suggests that distraction and reappraisal intervene at separate stages during emotion generation, a feature which may have distinct consequences that extend beyond the regulatory episode.
The ability to regulate emotions when they are maladaptive is among the most critical of human capacities (Gross, 2007). A growing body of research has begun to examine the cognitive processes which support this vital ability (Ochsner and Gross, 2008), identifying distinct forms of cognitive control which enable us to dynamically alter the type and intensity of our emotional responses. In particular, two widely used strategies – termed distraction and reappraisal – have garnered widespread interest as indispensable tools in the cognitive regulation of emotion. Distraction – which involves deploying attention away from the emotionally salient aspects of an emotion-eliciting event – has been shown to successfully reduce various indices of emotional responding, including subjective emotional intensity and corrugator muscle activity (Urry, 2010). It has also been shown to decrease the unpleasantness of painful stimulation, and to diminish activation in pain-related brain regions such as the insula (Bantick et al., 2002 and Seminowicz and Davis, 2007). Furthermore, in clinically oriented research, a number of studies attest to distraction's efficacy in attenuating dysphoric mood (Lyubomirsky and Nolen-Hoeksema, 1993, Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991 and Nolen-Hoeksema and Morrow, 1993). In contrast to distraction, reappraisal involves re-evaluating an emotional event's underlying meaning. It too can successfully attenuate subjective (Gross, 1998), peripheral physiological (Jackson et al., 2000), and neural (Goldin et al., 2008, Ochsner et al., 2002, Ochsner et al., 2004 and Phan et al., 2005) indices of emotional responding such as amygdala and insula activity. Although outcome-based research suggests that both distraction and reappraisal are capable of diminishing emotional responding across many different affective contexts, it is not yet clear precisely how the mechanisms underlying these two major emotion regulation strategies differ. The goal of the present study was to test theoretically derived predictions regarding the temporal dynamics of these two forms of cognitive emotion regulation. To achieve this goal, we employed a temporally sensitive electroencephalogram (EEG)-derived index of emotional stimulus processing in order to probe the temporal dynamics of these two forms of regulation.