حمایت اجتماعی، پیوست و آسیب شناسی روانی در معرض خطر بزرگسالان که قبلا با آنان بدرفتاری شده است
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35047||2000||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 24, Issue 7, July 2000, Pages 883–900
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among social support, attachment security, and psychopathology in an adult sample of high risk abuse survivors. Attachment security was conceptualized in terms of two underlying dimensions, the working models of self and other. Method: Sixty-six participants (24 men and 42 women) who met conditions for physical or sexual abuse were recruited from the greater Boston area. They completed the “Record of Maltreatment Experiences,” the “Relationship Scales Questionnaire,” the “Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire,” and multiple measures of psychopathology. Results: When multiple risk and protective factors were examined concurrently (e.g., social support, attachment, abuse history, IQ, SES), a negative view of self (one of the attachment poles) was the strongest predictor of overall psychopathology. Social support did not emerge as a significant direct predictor of psychopathology, once the effects of negative view of self were accounted for. However, among participants low on social support, in comparison to those who are high, a negative view of self was more highly correlated with some psychopathology measures. Conclusions: These findings indicate that among maltreatment survivors, negative view of self emerges as the most substantial predictor of psychopathology when examined in combination with other relevant risk factors.
ONE OF THE most significant areas of risk studied in developmental psychopathology has been that of child maltreatment. Cicchetti (1990) described the effects of maltreatment on the child’s ability to negotiate stage-salient developmental tasks. Considerable risk for the development of psychopathology has been found among survivors of physical abuse Feldman et al 1995, Muller et al 1994 and Prino and Peyrot 1994, and among survivors of sexual abuse (Beitchman et al., 1992). Discussing the damaged attachments of trauma survivors, Herman (1992) explained that among these individuals, a negative view of self is prevalent; and it is characterized by a lack of self-respect and a lack of autonomy in relation to others. When the view of self is damaged, the individual loses the sense of agency and power to direct his/her own life in relationships. In maltreated individuals, there is a “violation of human connection” which fosters the belief that the world is a dangerous place (Herman, 1992). The individual’s sense of trust in others is compromised. Resilience among individuals at risk The terms “invulnerable” (Anthony & Cohler, 1987), and “resilient” Cicchetti and Garmezy 1993, Higgins 1994, Masten and Garmezy 1985, Werner 1990, Werner 1993 and Werner and Smith 1982 have been used to describe those who have the ability to overcome adversity. Higgins (1994) described such individuals as those who are able to negotiate significant challenges to development yet consistently “snap back” in order to complete the developmental task that confronts them as they grow. Among those at risk, notable individual differences exist, with some showing the ability to overcome the effects of their misfortune. Protective factors function in such a manner as to buffer the effects of a high risk background upon these persons and their functioning. Social support is among the most significant of the protective factors. Higgins (1994) and Rutter (1987) found that individuals having at least one supportive relationship with a caring adult (including siblings, grandparents, teachers, etc.) functioned much better than expected given their troubled histories.