اثرات فیزیولوژیکی ساخت ماندالا در بزرگسالان مبتلا به معلولیت ذهنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35188||2011||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4234 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 38, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 109–113
This study investigated mandala making as an effective physiological stress reducer for individuals with intellectual disability. Stress levels were measured using systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse. Participants (N = 15) engaged in three activities, serving as their own controls: mandala making, free drawing and a neutral control condition. Findings revealed no significant differences in changes in stress measures across the three conditions, however, t-tests of blood pressure change in the mandala making condition indicated a statistically significant reduction in both diastolic and systolic pressure between the first and third reading; similar differences were not found in the other two conditions. These findings suggest that mandala making is an effective stress reducer for those with intellectual disability, however, evidence does not show it is more effective than the control conditions. Suggestions for future research are discussed.
Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) (also known as mental retardation) are at risk for experiencing psychological stress (Chaney, 1996 and Janssen et al., 2002) and physical stress resulting from repeated stress responses (Chaney, 1996 and Neumann et al., 2000). Lunsky and Bramston (2006) raised the possibility that this might be due to the appraisal processes they use when faced with situations they perceive as stressful. If prolonged, these negative perceptions and emotions can jeopardize immune system functioning and increase susceptibility to viruses and diseases as the stress response is activated again and again (Lovallo, 2005). The “stress response” is elicited by a stressor, a term coined by Hans Seyle; it is any agent (or threat) that evokes a stress response ( Everly and Lating, 2002 and Lovallo, 2005). The stress response is the psychophysiological reaction to a stressor and is characterized by a broad range of reactions. Physically, one can experience increased sympathetic activity: elevated blood pressure, heart rate and respiration as well as decreased parasympathetic activity (relaxation response) ( Everly & Lating, 2002). In addition, stimulated endocrine response, including increases in epinephrine (adrenaline) and cortisol levels may occur ( Everly and Lating, 2002 and Lovallo, 2005). Psychologically, negative perceptions of what is occurring (such as a perceived inability to cope) or what could occur can increase negative emotions such as anxiety or depression ( Everly & Rosenfeld, 1981), fear or anger ( Lovallo, 2005) as well as create feelings of helplessness, loss of control, or failure.