روان رنجوری، روزانه، و نشانه های افسردگی: بررسی تعدیل و اثرات واسطه ای
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35237||2007||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 42, Issue 7, May 2007, Pages 1367–1378
This study examined the relationship between the personality trait neuroticism (N) and daily hassles in the development of depressive symptoms. Seventy-seven college freshmen completed self-report measures of N, daily hassles, and depression at 3 time points during the academic year. Models of moderation and mediation among N, hassles, and depressive symptoms were examined using regression analysis. High-N individuals were more likely than low-N individuals to develop depressive symptoms under exposure to hassles. Additionally, daily hassles partially mediated the relationship between N and depressive symptoms. Taken together the results of this study indicate that (a) high levels of N exacerbate the effect of daily hassles on the development of depressive symptoms, and (b) a portion of the effect of N on depressive symptoms may be attributed to differential exposure to daily hassles.
It has long been postulated that personality traits may serve as vulnerability factors in the development of depressive symptoms by affecting the manner in which individuals perceive, react to, or cope with stressors. This view holds that individual differences in cognitive, affective, or physiological response to environmental events can predispose some individuals to experience psychological distress, which over time may lead to the development of psychopathology (see Clark, 2005). 1.1. Neuroticism as a vulnerability to depressive symptoms Neuroticism (N) is a higher-order personality dimension related to poor stress coping, irrational thinking, poor impulse control, worry, and high negative affect (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Neuroticism is a strong predictor of psychological problems, especially those related to affective disturbance (Watson, Gamez, & Simms, 2005). Neuroticism is related to the various manifestations of depression. Prospective studies show that high premorbid levels of N predict the first incidence of depression (Hirschfeld et al., 1989), as well as recurrences (Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, & Eaves, 1993). Roberts and Kendler (1999) found that the genetic factors that contribute to N account for close to half of the genetic variance of unipolar depression, and conclude that N is an expression of an underlying genetic vulnerability to this disorder. Data from non-clinical samples also provide evidence that N serves as a trait vulnerability for both anxiety and depression (Clark et al., 1994, Krueger et al., 1996 and Trull and Sher, 1994). Gray’s (1982) behavioral motivation model suggests that N is related to activity of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). The BIS is proposed to initiate passive-avoidant behavior in the presence of threatening or conditioned aversive stimuli, novel stimuli, and perceptual cues signaling the absence of positive reinforcement. Thus, high N levels are hypothesized to be related to heightened vigilance towards punishment cues and a slowed rate of habituation towards aversive stimuli. This can consequently lead to an increase in distress and greater risk for development of depressive symptoms.