بررسی همبستگی و تجربی تماشای تلویزیون واقعیت و علاقه به عمل جراحی زیبایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35700||2010||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5860 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Body Image, Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 165–171
Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths’ interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age = 19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age = 19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program.
The importance of physical beauty to individuals’ perceptions of themselves and others begins early in life (e.g., Goldfield and Chrisler, 1995 and Hawley et al., 2007) and may result in behavioral and mental health consequences (Lu and Hou, 2009, Markey and Markey, 2009, Ogden, 2003, Polivy and Herman, 2002, Sarwer et al., 2004, Stice and Shaw, 2002 and Wertheim et al., 2009). Although there is evidence that perceptions of attractiveness are guided by innate preferences for symmetry and evolutionarily adaptive features (e.g., small waist-to-hip ratios among women; see Markey et al., 2002, Singh, 1993 and Singh, 1994), there is also substantial evidence that social experiences – including media experiences – contribute significantly to perceptions of attractiveness (e.g., Markey, 2004, Markey et al., 2002, Posavac et al., 1998 and Strahan et al., 2008). The potential effects of media messages on men's and women's body image have been examined in past research, with various forms of the media (e.g., music videos, television, magazines) appearing to have the potential to impact body image via different processes (e.g., Botta, 1999, Lew et al., 2007, Mazzeo et al., 2007, Nabi, 2009, Strahan et al., 2008, Tiggemann, 2003, Tiggemann, 2005, Tiggemann and McGill, 2004 and Tiggemann and Slater, 2004). However, as new information is gained from this research, new media messages about techniques for changing one's physical appearance are continually being made available to the public. The present study examined one of these new media messages (reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery) in relation to young adults’ interest in changing their physical appearance using cosmetic surgery. Because of the importance of their physical appearance to individuals’ psychological and physical well being (especially youths, see Harter, 1989 and Harter, 2006) and the relative lack of objective criteria for evaluating physical beauty, it is likely that individuals assess their own appearance using every source of information available. According to Festinger (1954), social comparison provides individuals with a means to evaluate their own qualities when objective or unambiguous criteria for evaluation are not available. Body image research suggests that the media have the potential to influence appearance satisfaction via the process of social comparison (Lew et al., 2007 and Tiggemann and McGill, 2004). The majority of media messages are directed at women and these messages appear to result in negative self-evaluations; the vast majority of women cannot achieve the ideals presented by the media (Henderson-King et al., 2001 and Lew et al., 2007). In contrast, when individuals are asked to compare themselves with unattractive media images, they report feeling better about themselves (Brown, Novick, Lord, & Richards, 1992). Women who report greater media contact not only report lower self-concept, but evidence also suggests links between women's health-related behaviors (e.g., eating disorders) and their exposure to unrealistic media messages (Field et al., 1999 and Moriarty and Harrison, 2008). Recent research further suggests that exposure to depictions of beauty ideals is particularly detrimental to women who are invested in their appearance, prone to body dissatisfaction, and suffering from low self-esteem (Bessenoff, 2006, Heinberg and Thompson, 1995, Henderson-King et al., 2001 and Ip and Jarry, 2008). Research examining links between men's exposure to idealized media images and their feelings and behaviors related to their bodies is less extensive than is the research examining women and presents less consistent findings (e.g., Hargreaves and Tiggemann, 2009 and van den Berg et al., 2007). However, men have been found to report greater levels of body dissatisfaction, depression, and interest in enhancing their bodies following exposure to ideal male bodies (Agliata and Tantleff-Dunn, 2004 and Hatoum and Belle, 2004). One recent experiment (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2009) suggests that social comparison may be the mechanism linking exposure to images and men's body-related concerns and that men with body-related concerns may be more vulnerable than others to media messages. Consistent with research focusing on women, men's exposure to ideal media images may not just impact their dissatisfaction with their appearance but their global sense of self and interest in changing their appearance (Hargreaves & Tiggemann, 2009). Recently, cosmetic surgery has become increasingly popular as a means of appearance-enhancement. Cosmetic surgery has come to be conceptualized as an approach to physical improvement that is accessible, relatively affordable, and appropriate for all ages. In 2008, 12.1 million cosmetic surgery procedures were performed, a 63% increase since 2000 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons [ASPS], 2009). Although the increase in procedures in the last decade is due in part to the increase in minimally invasive procedures (e.g., Botox), the demand for cosmetic surgery is unquestionable. There is a strong gender bias in this demand, with 91% of cosmetic surgery procedures performed on females, but cosmetic surgery patients are increasingly ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (ASPS, 2008) and the appeal of cosmetic surgery is international (International Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery [ISAPS], 2008). Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) have suggested that increasing exposure to messages about the importance of attractiveness should lead to individuals’ increasing concerns about their own appearance and openness to using various means through which cultural standards can be achieved. However, little research has examined the extent to which media messages about cosmetic surgery influence individuals’ desire for self-change, and the research that is available is limited in its focus on women and/or its correlational approach (e.g., Crockett et al., 2007, Markey and Markey, 2009, Mazzeo et al., 2007, Nabi, 2009, Sperry et al., 2009 and Zuckerman and Abraham, 2008). Perhaps most relevant to the present study is research suggesting that television shows featuring cosmetic surgery do not necessarily influence body satisfaction, per se, but may influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery and interest in acquiring cosmetic surgery (Crockett et al., 2007, Nabi, 2009 and Sperry et al., 2009). Further, Mazzeo et al. (2007) suggest that media messages featuring cosmetic surgery may impact eating disordered attitudes and behaviors among women. The present studies extend this research by using both correlational and experimental data to examine the influence of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery on individuals’ interest in altering their own physical appearance.