تغییرات در برابری جنسیتی آشکار در پورنوگرافی؟ یک مطالعه میان فرهنگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35873||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5070 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 36, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 279–285
In 1960, feminist groups and scholars published critiques of common “male-centric” views of sexuality. They analyzed pornography, traditions as to who initiates sexual encounters, the (non)existence of foreplay, and common (male dominant) sexual positions. Some even said such activities should be abolished (see Dworkin, 1985, Firestone, 1970 and Solanas, 1971). Today, the appropriate role of sexuality, specifically the role of pornography in women's lives, probably sparks the biggest debate among feminists. The majority of research on pornography focuses on its misogynistic biases and maladaptive effects, while the minority of literature contends that pornography can be egalitarian and thus be empowering for women. There is little research to test these competing hypotheses as to the value of pornography for women. This paper was designed to investigate whether or not in societies where men and women are relatively equal in status versus unequal, different kinds of pornography flourishes. Three countries that differed markedly in the status of women (based on their United Nation's Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) ranking published in the 2007/2008 Human Development Report) were selected for comparison: Norway (1), the United States (15), and Japan (54). We then compared the nature of their most popular pornography. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypothesis that – consistent with their GEM ranking – popular Norwegian pornography would depict women in more empowered positions than pornography from the United States and Japan. Results supported this hypothesis. This finding could be attributed to the wider variety in Norwegian pornography, e.g. greater variation in the women's age, weight, and body positioning. There were no significant differences in the extent models in the three countries appeared in demeaning positions.