نقش جنسیت ادراک شده که رفتار جنسی جوانان را شکل می دهد: شواهدی از مناطق روستایی اوریسا، هند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|35890||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Adolescence, Volume 33, Issue 4, August 2010, Pages 543–551
The study attempts to understand the association of perceived gender role with youth sexual behavior using qualitative data such as focus group discussions (N = 8), in-depth interviews (N = 42), and free listing (N = 50) of rural married youths from Orissa, India. Data collection was conducted during July 2006–April 2007. Atlas. ti and ANTHROPAC packages have been used for the analysis. Youths in general are expected to adhere to the roles ascribed for them based on their biological construct and any deviation is not warranted for, more so for young women. Moreover, for many young men perceived gender role coupled with poor self risk perception result into unsafe sexual activities, putting them as well as their partners at the risk of STI/HIV and unintended parenthood.
Gender roles are the social behaviors, lifestyle, and personality characteristics that women and men are expected to exhibit (Burnette, 2006). It includes the rights and obligations that are normative for the sexes in a given society (Brinkerhoff & White, 1988). Sexuality on the other hand is a dynamic construct involving bodies, behaviors, meanings, social norms, institutions and conflicts (Weeks, 1986). Sexual behavior is an expression of socially constructed sexuality and is largely shaped, conceived and constrained according to norms within different societies. Moreover, societies that dictate different attitudes towards men and women with respect to youth sexuality further contribute to risk taking behavior (Hardee et al., 2004 and Miller and Whitaker, 2001). Gender role differentials widen during adolescence (Bruce et al., 1995 and Devasia and Devasia, 1991), as boys enjoy privileges reserved for men such as autonomy, mobility and opportunity while girls find their mobility and education restricted (Greene, 1997). Gender disparities and double standards have a considerable influence on the sexual and reproductive health and lives of young people (Tangmunkongvorakul, Roslyn, & Kaye, 2005). Inequitable gender norms and related behavior influence violence, HIV/STI, and sexual and reproductive health of young men and their intimate partners (Pulerwitz & Barker, 2008). Furthermore, the dominant norms of masculinity that is the most traditional beliefs about manhood adopted by young men, predicted the highest level of risk taking and of involvement in behaviors such as high-risk sexual activity (Courtenay, 2000). In the age of AIDS and in a country like India where talking about sex continues to be a taboo (TOI, 2009), understanding the sexual behavior especially of the youths holds an important and crucial place. Youths (15–24 years) who largely define the socio-economic and political future of a population are about 20 percent of the Indian population (RGI, 2001). Although the present generation is relatively more urbanised and better educated, social vulnerabilities persist and transitions to adulthood are often marked by abrupt and premature exit from school, entry into the labour force and strongly held gender norms (Jejeebhoy & Sebastian, 2004). National Aids Control Organization (2006) and Verma et al. (2004) are of the view that young people form a significant segment of those acquiring sexually transmitted infections and those infected by HIV/AIDS. Small-scale studies conducted in different parts of the country further highlights the existence of eve teasing, non-consensual sex, and sexual violence within and outside the marriage (George, 2003, IIPS Pop Council, 2007, Jaya and Hindin, 2007 and Mathew, 2005). Nonetheless, an important factor influencing young Indian men's HIV risk is early socialization in notions of masculinity that endorse inequitable gender-related attitudes and behaviors (Verma et al., 2006). Gender differences are significant in the differential opportunities that boys and girls have in terms of access to information and in the exploration of their sexuality. These gender roles internalized by boys and girls are reflected in their social interactions, attitudes and views regarding marriage and sex, and in the nature and extent of their sexual experiences (Abraham, 2004). Evidence shows that young people are more likely to report sexual behaviors in culturally specific interactive interviews than in face-to-face interviews (Jaya, Hindin, & Ahmed, 2008). Boys are often socialized to engage in sexual activity so as to express their masculinity (Abraham, 2002, Das, 1988, Dube, 1988 and Jejeebhoy et al., 2004). Again, the prevailing norms of masculinity and expectations from young men to behave in a stereotypical manner are generally strong and operate in a variety of subtle yet profound manners (Verma et al., 2008). Unequal gender norms and power imbalances further appeared to characterize the sexual relationships of the majority of married youths, both within and outside marriage; underscoring young women's inability to negotiate safe sexual practices with their husbands and their pre- as well as extra-marital partners (Santhya, Jejeebhoy, & Ghosh, 2008). On this backdrop, the present study attempts to understand the association of perceived gender role with sexual behavior. Specifically, it explores youths' perception about ‘real man and woman’ and how do this perception shape sexual behavior in Puri district of the state of Orissa, India.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The present study elucidates that in addition to the biological difference between the sexes, there are some other socio-cultural factors that play equally vital role in further validating the gender identities. Youths are in agreement with the attributes like the ability of a man to earn and maintain family, to take decision, to physically satisfy spouse/partner and to procreate besides having a well-built body as the essential characteristics of a ‘real man’. Similarly, a ‘real woman’ is perceived as one who is capable of bearing children, taking care of family members, well acquainted with domestic chores, and above all possess a good character. Additionally, since young men and women are treated differently and are provided different learning environments, they tend to develop differential needs and roles. Society does not impose any direct restriction on young men to indulge in sexual activities before marriage and/or outside marital union. In contrast, there is a lot of stigma attached to sexuality of young women as the words like virginity, fidelity, and family prestige in the community are typically associated with them. Nevertheless, youths in general are expected to adhere to the roles ascribed for them based on their biological construct, and any deviation from it is not warranted for, more so for young women. Young women are not in a position to exercise or prevent the violation of their safe sexual and reproductive practices despite their extent of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health. Furthermore, for many young men perceived gender role coupled with inadequate self risk perception result into unsafe sexual activities, putting them as well as their partners at the risk of STI/HIV and unintended parenthood. Results indicate that gender ideals are grounded in traits that reinforce poor sexual negotiation along with risky behavioral practices and place adolescents at unwanted SRH outcomes. The findings are certainly a contribution to the existing literature on the association of gender role with youth sexual behavior. Although the study has come out with important findings exploring the association of perceived gender role with youth sexual behavior, the cross sectional design of the study restricts from drawing any conclusion regarding the direction of youth's perceived gender role. The small sample size and geographical coverage further compels to be cautious in interpretation and generalization of the results to wider extent. In view of the sensitiveness of the information collected, the social desirability response bias cannot be totally annulled. Finally, besides perceived gender role; other programmatic as well as non-programmatic variables do affect youth sexual behavior, which is not well attempted in the present study.