روش های مقیاس گذاری برای اندازه گیری آسیب شناسی روانی در افراد با معلولیت ذهنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36027||2012||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12872 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 33, Issue 2, March–April 2012, Pages 549–562
Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID. The first standardized test to emerge was the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA) in 1984. Since that time, an impressive number of measures of general psychopathology have emerged for adults and children as well as for persons across the full range of levels of ID. The purpose of this review was to provide a description of available measures, to review papers published on these measures, and to discuss emerging trends in test development. The trends in this body of information for enhancing differential diagnosis of psychopathology in persons with ID are discussed.
ID is a condition that affects roughly 3% of the population worldwide. While many genetic conditions are known to cause ID, there are many social and cultural factors that also may exacerbate this problem (Asada et al., 2010, Chen et al., 2010, Cheng and Chen, 2010, Matson et al., 1997a and Matson et al., 1998b). Common problems seen in persons with ID include deficits in social and adaptive/self-help skills (Lancioni et al., 2010, Lante et al., 2010, Leung et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2010, Shin et al., 2010, Sun et al., 2010, Wise et al., 2010 and Wu et al., 2010). Additionally, co-occurring problems such as epilepsy and challenging behaviors (CBs) occur at high rates (Embregts et al., 2010, Lambrechts et al., 2010, McCarthy et al., 2010, Rose, 2010 and Williams, 2010). One of the most heavily studied topics regarding problems that co-occur are mental health disorders. This situation is largely due to the fact that psychopathology is generally acknowledged to occur at much higher rates among persons with ID compared to the general population (Cherry et al., 1997, Cherry et al., 2000, Dekker and Koot, 2003, Dekker et al., 2002a, Emerson, 2003, Matson et al., 1997b and Paclawskyj et al., 1997). Some specific disorders are more common than others. For example, children with ID are more likely to evince Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or pervasive developmental disorders (Koskentausta, Iivanainen, & Almqvist, 2002). ID and psychopathology are risk factors for a variety of other problems also including various CBs (Duncan et al., 1999, Matson and Bamburg, 1999, Matson and Nebel-Schwalm, 2007 and Mayville et al., 2005). However, these CBs are distinct disorders versus symptoms of psychopathology (Matson and Mayville, 2001 and Sturmey et al., 2010a, Sturmey, Laud, Cooper, Matson, & Fodstad, 2010b). Other serious deficits in self-help and social skills are evident (Coe et al., 1999, Kuhn et al., 2001, Matson et al., 1999a, Matson et al., 1999b, Matson et al., 1998a, Matson and Kuhn, 2001, Matson et al., 1998b, Smith and Matson, 2010a and Smith and Matson, 2010b). Physical disabilities are also more common with epilepsy being particularly common (Smith & Matson, 2010c).