عامل تحریک برای تناسب اندام: ارزیابی و ارتباط آن با جنسیت، نقش جنسیتی و عینیت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36081||2008||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8100 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Body Image, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2008, Pages 251–260
Three components of body image – drive for thinness (DT), drive for muscularity (DM), and drive for leanness (DL) – were assessed in 232 college students. A new measure of DL was developed. Data suggested that the new scale yielded valid and reliable scores. The relationships of gender, gender norm endorsement, and self-objectification to DT, DM, and DL were examined. The surveillance subscale of the OBC Scale was related to DL, DT, and DM in men and to DL and DT in women. Gender norm endorsement, specifically romantic relationships, moderated the relationship of surveillance to DT in women. Gender norm endorsement was directly related to DM and DT in men. DLS appeared to measure a distinct component of body image. Feminine gender role was only related to DT while masculine gender role was related to DL, DT, and DM, raising important questions about the gender differences in body image.
It is almost a truism in the body image field that men (and boys) are generally invested in muscularity while women (and girls) want to be thin (e.g., Ricciardelli, McCabe, Mussap, & Holt, in press; Thompson & Cafri, 2007; Wertheim, Paxton, & Blaney, in press). However, most men do not want to be bodybuilder-muscular and most women do not want to be anorexic-thin. Instead, both want to achieve a certain level of leanness, so men wish to be lean and muscular while women want to be thin and toned (e.g., Elliot et al., 2006; Ridgeway & Tylka, 2005). Whether this desire for leanness is conceptually similar in men and women is an open question. In addition, it is not known whether a “drive for leanness” is healthy or whether, like drive for thinness in particular, it is associated with pathological and dangerous outcomes. “Drive for leanness” refers to a motivating interest in having relatively low body fat and toned, physically fit muscles. The desire for limited body fat is not the equivalent of wanting to be thin. Furthermore, it is possible that the “drive for leanness” is not as heavily related to appearance as at least drive for thinness is. Like “drive for muscularity”, drive for leanness may, at least for some people, reflect an interest in a healthy body that functions well in sports and other physical activities. As with drive for muscularity, however, drive for leanness may sometimes result in problematic body change strategies. Drive for leanness (DL), may be a component of drive for thinness (DT) or drive for muscularity (DM) or it may be a separate aspect of body image. If it is the latter, then it may have its own unique risk factors and developmental path. Furthermore, DL may exacerbate the negative effects of DT or DM or, if it represents a healthy attitude towards the body, it may reduce the negative effects of DT and DM. These and a myriad of other questions can only be effectively answered if there is a valid measure of DL. The first goal of the present research was to develop a valid and reliable measure of DL.