پاسخ های مقابله ای نوجوانان به خشونت خانگی: یک مطالعه کیفی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36156||2008||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7180 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 30, Issue 6, June 2008, Pages 654–664
This article explores the coping strategies of 10 adolescent males, ages 14 through 17, who were exposed to domestic violence perpetrated by a male parent. In-depth interviews provide the foundation for understanding their experiences, suggesting that environmental stressors, which produce psychosocial difficulties, warrant clinical intervention, and in turn influence coping. It is noteworthy that such behavioral problems, which are sometimes seen as pathological, can also be adaptive.
Over the last twenty years, study after study (Carlson, 1994, Davies, 1991, Jaffe et al., 1990, Rivett et al., 2006 and Wolfe et al., 1985) show that latency age children exhibit psychological problems due to their exposure to domestic violence. These researchers and others (Jaffe et al., 1986 and Osofsky, 1997) observe that boys externalize their response by exhibiting aggression while girls internalize theirs, turning their anger toward themselves. Inquiry about young children continues to receive attention while investigation into the effects of domestic violence on adolescents is still evolving. More specifically, its impact on poor adolescent boys of color living in an urban context needs more exposure and needs to be better understood (O'Keefe, 1996). My study seeks to fill that gap (Aymer, 2005). Adolescence involves transitions, choices, connections, alienation, and risks. These processes potentially bolster self-development and support autonomous functioning. The occurrences of domestic violence create additional complications for poor male adolescents of color living in an urban environment, making their psychosocial functioning difficult, and sometimes treacherous. This study was informed by social learning theory, which emphasizes how environmental variables affect behavior. Bandura's (1973) view is that “behavior partly creates the environment, and the resultant environment, in turn, influences the behavior” (p. 43). For the boys in this study, seemingly dysfunctional behaviors—such as using violence to solve interpersonal problems, running away from home, and using drugs and alcohol as coping reactions—underscore their connection with the violent familial and environmental contexts which permeate and inform their social and emotional development (Fraser & Kirby, 1997), reminding us once again that environment provides “the context for child development” (p. 20). The present study not only investigates coping mechanisms, but also examines how these young men are affected by poverty, poor parenting, social injustice, maltreatment, and parental pathology (Fraser & Kirby, 1997). The construct of resilience underlies the research, a quality that enables children to deal with internal and external distress. Greene, Galambos, and Lee (2003) note that resiliency theory should be considered when working with populations where risk and vulnerability exist. They believe that both environmental and socio-cultural variables must be evaluated in order to understand functioning. In this study, I ask the following questions: What behavioral difficulties are evident in males exposed to domestic violence? What risk do environmental and familial factors play in developing coping capacities? What environment and familial circumstances impact coping behaviors? What conditions promote resilience? Given the paucity of research on adolescent males—but also the importance of understanding all reactions to the exposure of violence—the experiences of both boys and girls are discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study explores the experiences of 10 urban adolescents, challenged by violence at home and by the infestation of drugs, alcoholism, poverty, and crime. Their hopes and dreams were marked by a desire to change, made all the more difficult because, though some have separated from their families or are residing with their girlfriends, all bear the scars from their pasts. The violence they witnessed and that was sometimes perpetrated on them is, in some situations, being replicated in their own relationships. This study highlights the vulnerability and resiliency of a population usually ignored, both in research as well as by the social service delivery system. Therapeutic work as well as involvement in sports and religious practice are examples of healthy, adaptive strategies which have both mitigated their experience of violence and provided a more positive vision for the future.