اقدام به خودکشی، بیان عاطفی و عملکرد مردسالاری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36308||2012||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8355 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 74, Issue 4, February 2012, Pages 498–505
Male rates of suicide are significantly higher than female rates in Ireland and other Western countries, yet the process and detail of men’s suicidal action is relatively unknown. This is partly due to prevailing theoretical and methodological approaches. In this area of study, macro-level, quantitative approaches predominate; and theoretical frameworks tend to adopt unitary notions of men, as well as binary, oppositional, concepts of masculinity and femininity. This inquiry, based on in-depth interviews with 52 young Irish men who made a suicide attempt, examines suicidal behaviour at the individual level. The findings demonstrate that these men experienced high levels of emotional pain but had problems identifying symptoms and disclosing distress and this, along with the coping mechanisms used, was linked to a form of masculinity prevalent in their social environment. Dominant or hegemonic masculinity norms discouraged disclosure of emotional vulnerability, and participants used alcohol and drugs to cope – which exacerbated and prolonged their distress. Over time this led to a situation where they felt their options had narrowed, and suicidal action represented a way out of their difficulties. These men experienced significant, long-lasting, emotional pain but, in the context of lives lived in environments where prevailing constructions of masculinity constrained its expression, they opted for suicide rather than disclose distress and seek help. Underpinning this study is a presumption that binary notions of male and female emotions lack substance, but that the expression of emotions is gender-specific and constrained in some social localities.
Suicide, especially among young men, increased significantly in most Western countries in the latter decades of the twentieth century, a trend apparent in Ireland since the 1970s (NOSP, 2009). Yet, despite its public health importance, and its historical significance within sociology, there has been relatively little sociological interest in this topic over the last century. The study of suicide has become increasingly the domain of bio-medical disciplines. The sociological work which does exist has tended to follow Durkheim (1951 ) in adopting a quantitative, macro-level, approach. This endeavour has produced some support for his thesis that integrated societies have lower rates of suicide. High levels of factors considered to promote social integration, such as participation in religion and close family ties still result in lower suicide rates, but other features identified by Durkheim, notably youth and poverty, no longer protect. There is now a consistent association between low socio-economic status and suicidal behaviour (Baudelot and Establet, 2008 and Gunnell et al., 1995) and since the mid twentieth century younger, rather than older, people have been more likely to complete suicide (Middleton et al., 2006 and World Heath Organisation, 2011). These investigations provide a profile of suicide patterns in contemporary society (and a rationale for the particular focus of this paper), but they offer little insight into the process of suicidal action (Redley, 2003 and Redley, 2009; Swami, Stanistreet, & Payne, 2008). In line with Durkheim’s theory, a disconnection is maintained between societal factors and individual motivations. Over four decades ago, Douglas (1967) remarked that the meaningful analysis of suicide would have to be based on the definitions supplied by the social actors involved, yet few studies have attempted this. An exception is Redley’s (2003) work, which illustrates why individuals in particular environments may opt for suicidal behaviour. However, no qualitative study of suicide has focused specifically on young men – the group who are most at risk. The present enquiry seeks to address this gap in the sociological literature by examining the emotions and meanings involved in suicidal behaviour, based on a sample of young men who made a suicide attempt. In seeking to understand why these men moved towards suicidal decisions, I draw on concepts and knowledge from gender and masculinity studies relating to men’s emotional lives and health-related practices.