مردسالاری در معرض تهدید و عضلانی: بررسی تجربی جنبه های عضلانی در مردان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36321||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8594 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Body Image, Volume 10, Issue 3, June 2013, Pages 290–299
Two studies examined the threatened masculinity theory of male body dissatisfaction, which posits that threats to masculinity result in increased muscle dissatisfaction. In Study 1, a masculinity threat was followed by tasks examining confidence in physical ability and perceptions of current and ideal body shapes. Results showed that men who experienced a masculinity threat reported lower confidence in their physical ability and perceived themselves as less muscular than men who experienced an affirmation of their masculinity. In Study 2, men were asked to report their intention to increase muscularity and their appearance anxiety following a threat to masculinity. Results showed that men reported lower appearance anxiety and drive for muscularity when their masculinity was threatened than when their masculinity was affirmed. This apparent contradiction can be explained by noting that men may be motivated to deny appearance concerns following a threat to masculinity, as such concerns are equated with femininity.
In many Western societies today, men are under pressure to display their masculinity through their bodies. The currently idealised male form in Western society is defined by large and well-developed muscularity in the upper torso and arms, a flat, toned stomach, and a slim waist (Morrison, Morrison, & Hopkins, 2003). While this ideal form has existed for quite some time, it has evolved since the mid-1980s to become increasingly (and unrealistically) muscular (Grogan and Richards, 2002 and Leit et al., 2001). Images of male attractiveness are frequently presented through the mass media in representations targeted not only towards men (e.g., advertisements and editorials in men's magazines; Frederick et al., 2005, Ricciardelli et al., 2010 and Rohlinger, 2002), but also towards women (e.g., Playgirl centrefolds; Leit et al., 2001) and children (e.g., GI Joe and Star Wars action figures; Pope, Olivardia, Gruber, & Borowiecki, 1999), with many of the presented images being highly eroticised and body focused (Rohlinger, 2002).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The two studies described here were designed to empirically examine the threatened masculinity theory of muscle dissatisfaction in men (Mishkind et al., 1986). Providing support for this theory, Study 1 demonstrated that men who experienced a direct threat to their masculinity displayed decreased confidence in their physical ability and perceived themselves to have less muscle mass. There was also evidence that men who are low in conformity to masculine norms reacted to this threat by rejecting the muscular ideal. However, the results of Study 2 did not appear to support the threatened masculinity theory. Instead of showing greater body dissatisfaction following a masculinity threat, high masculinity men in Study 2 reported lower desire to be more muscular, and low masculinity men reported lower concern with their appearance, following a threat to masculinity than following an affirmation of masculinity.