نظرات مبتنی بر ظاهر، نارضایتی از بدن و محرک برای عضلانی در مردان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36368||2008||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6586 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Body Image, Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2008, Pages 337–345
This study examined the role of positive and negative appearance-based comments on body dissatisfaction and drive for muscularity among young adult males. The direct and moderating effect of self-esteem were also investigated; and BMI, age, and social desirability were included as covariates. The participants were 214 males aged between 18 and 30 years. More frequent negative comments were associated with higher body dissatisfaction whilst more frequent positive comments were associated with lower body dissatisfaction. However, both frequent negative and positive commentary were associated with higher drive for muscularity. Self-esteem was also associated with both body dissatisfaction and the drive for muscularity, but it did not moderate that influence of either positive or negative messages. Longitudinal research is now needed to determine the directionality of these relationships. Further research is required to establish the contexts in which positive and negative messages are associated with body dissatisfaction and the drive for muscularity.
Body image has received increasing attention over the last 20 years due to the association between body dissatisfaction and a range of physical and psychological health problems (Cash, 2004 and Grogan, 2006). The current evidence indicates that a substantial percentage of males are dissatisfied with their bodies (Frederick et al., 2007; Thompson & Cafri, 2007; Vartanian, Giant, & Passino, 2001), however, their body image concerns differ from those typically reported by females. Unlike females who predominantly desire a thinner body (Tiggemann, 2006), evidence suggests that males desire a muscular physique, accompanied by minimal adipose tissue (i.e., body fat) (Cohane & Pope, 2001; Ricciardelli & McCabe, 2003), a body shape known as the mesomorphic physique (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2005; Smolak & Stein, 2006). Further, the desire for muscularity appears to be predominantly associated with the upper torso (Hoyt & Kogan, 2001; Stanford & McCabe, 2005).