تاثیر یک دستکاری ضمنی از اعتماد به نفس بر روی نارضایتی از بدن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36400||2012||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6011 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Volume 43, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 581–586
Background and objectives Given the theoretically postulated causal pathway from low self-esteem on body dissatisfaction, the aim of the present study was to experimentally test this linkage before and after a mirror exposure in body dissatisfied females. Method Thirty-six women with high body dissatisfaction (HBD) and 39 women with low body dissatisfaction (LBD) received either a positive or a negative implicit manipulation of self-esteem and participants’ actual body dissatisfaction and negative emotions were assessed (T1). Following that, they underwent a one minute mirror exposure and actual body dissatisfaction and emotions were assessed once more (T2). Results In the HBD group no effects of the self-esteem manipulation were found prior to the mirror exposure. However, the negative manipulation of self-esteem led to a significant increase of body dissatisfaction over the course of the mirror exposure. The positive manipulation of self-esteem did not decrease body dissatisfaction over the course of the mirror exposure. No effects of self-esteem on body dissatisfaction were found in the LBD group. Limitations Formal eating disorder diagnosis in study participants was not established. Therefore, the extension of the results to an eating disordered population is recommended. Conclusions The results yield evidence of a close linkage between negative self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in individuals high on body dissatisfaction. Consistent with cognitive theories, this link is only apparent when shape and weight schemas are activated, e.g. by the confrontation with one’s own body.
Body dissatisfaction is one of the empirically best validated etiological and maintenance factors of eating disorders (ED; Jacobi et al., 2004 and Stice, 2002). Therefore, identifying factors that trigger or maintain body dissatisfaction can be considered a major goal for ED prevention, treatment and relapse prevention. According to the transdiagnostic theory of ED (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003), “core low self-esteem” is a major factor contributing to the overvaluation of shape and weight. Specifically, low self-esteem is thought to foster body dissatisfaction, thereby obstructing changes with regard to eating pathology. However, to date only a few studies have empirically tested this causal link. In one study Meijboom, Jansen, Kampman, and Schouten (1999) adopted a priming paradigm to test the effects of self-esteem on shape and weight concerns. Specifically, high and low restrained eaters were experimentally either primed or not primed with low self-esteem before completing a subliminal and a supraliminal lexical decision task. Results revealed that compared to all other groups, the primed high restrained group classified more shape and weight than neutral words correctly in the subliminal lexical decision task. No group differences were found on the supraliminal task. Hence, the link was shown to be prevalent at a rather spontaneous level only. Furthermore, as the implemented explicit self-esteem induction procedure lead to a significant increase of negative mood, it remains unclear in as far the increased access to body-related words was a consequence of the negative self-esteem or a negative mood induction.