خوشه علائم PTSD، احساس انتقام و درک شدت مجازات مجرم در قربانیان خشونت بین فردی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36511||2011||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5674 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume 34, Issue 5, September–October 2011, Pages 362–367
Feelings of revenge have often been found to correlate with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Which PTSD symptom cluster prevails in this association is, however, unknown. Furthermore, previous studies suggest that revenge may be satisfied by perceptions of perpetrator punishment severity, but did not control for concurrent symptoms of PTSD. Therefore, this study explored associations between PTSD symptom clusters, feelings of revenge, and perceived perpetrator punishment severity in a sample of victims of interpersonal violence. Results indicated that the re-experiencing/intrusion symptom cluster was the only index of PTSD which was related to victims' feelings of revenge (n = 207). Revenge correlated negatively with perceptions of punishment severity in victim who knew that the perpetrator had been sentenced, but not after adjustment for PTSD symptoms (n = 96).
Victims of violent trauma may suffer from a wide array of mental health problems, such as depression (Bargai, Ben-Shakhar, & Shalev, 2007); somatization, hostility, generalized and phobic anxiety (Norris and Kaniasty, 1994 and Winkel, 2009); eating disorders (Brady, 2008); substance abuse (Vermeiren, Schwab-Stone, Deboutte, Leckman, & Ruchkin, 2003); insomnia (Krakow et al., 2001); and sexual dysfunctioning (Letourneau, Resnick, Kilpatrick, Saunders, & Best, 1996). The vast majority of studies in this area, however, has focused on (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; e.g., Andrews et al., 2000, Johansen et al., 2007, Kilpatrick et al., 2003, Lawyer et al., 2006 and Orth, Cahill, et al., 2008). Symptoms of PTSD may correlate with rather normal, non-pathological affective states, including self-oriented emotions, such as self-blame (e.g., Ullman, Townsend, Starzynski, & Long, 2006); shame ( Andrews et al., 2000); and guilt (e.g., Street, Gibson, & Holohan, 2005), and other-oriented emotions, such as feelings of revenge (see Orth, Montada, & Maercker, 2006). While many self-oriented emotions may also be experienced in response to non-violent trauma, feelings of revenge particularly follow traumatic events involving (intentional) interpersonal transgressions. They typically occur during the late phases of the coping process ( Horowitz, 2007 and Orth et al., 2006) and stem from four types of cognitions: (1) perceptions of severe harm, (2) attribution of responsibility to the perpetrator, (3) condemnation of the violent act, and (4) a desire to retaliate ( Orth, 2004; see also Aquino et al., 2001, Montada, 1993, Tripp et al., 2007 and Vidmar, 2000). According to Orth and colleagues ( Orth, 2004 and Orth et al., 2006), it is particularly this latter feature which is essential to feelings of revenge and differentiates them from posttraumatic anger, which may also be directed at other targets than the perpetrator, such as the self; third persons; and the criminal justice system (e.g., Orth & Maercker, 2009), and also includes non-aggressive behavior tendencies ( Orth et al., 2006; for a contrasting view, see Tripp et al., 2007). Not surprisingly, revenge has been identified as an important punishment goal among victims of interpersonal violence (see Orth, 2003).