مردان فقط عصبانی نمی شوند بلکه حتی تلافی می کنند: انتقام، اما نه خشم تفاوت های جنسیتی در پرخاشگری فیزیکی را تعدیل می کند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36513||2015||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9213 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 46, Issue 5, October 2012, Pages 546–555
Past research indicates that men are more physically aggressive than women, but very little research has examined mediators of this gender difference. Indeed, the only established finding to date is that one plausible mediator – namely trait anger – shows no reliable gender difference whatsoever. Drawing on sexual selection theory and social-learning theories, we predicted that revenge may mediate this gender difference even though anger does not. Three studies using both personality questionnaires (Studies 1 and 2) and objective laboratory measures of aggression (Study 3) provided support for this contention. The results provide some of the first evidence for a reliable mediator of gender difference in physical aggression.
Men are more physically aggressive than women. This gender difference has been documented time and time again (see Archer, 2004, Bettencourt and Miller, 1996 and Eagley and Steffen, 1986 for meta-analytic reviews). It has been found across different ages (Baillargeon et al., 2007 and Tremblay et al., 1999) and different cultural groups (Archer, 2004). Moreover, it has been found using diverse methodologies, including self-report questionnaires (Archer, 2004), observational measures (Archer, 2004), objective laboratory measures (Bettencourt & Miller, 1996), and crime statistics (e.g., Daly & Wilson, 1988). Despite this clear gender difference, psychologists have struggled to explain why men are more physically aggressive than women. Traditionally, explanations have highlighted either evolutionary pressures (e.g., Archer, 2009) or social-learning processes (e.g., Eagley and Wood, 2009 and Wood and Eagley, 2002). A recent exchange between these two groups of theorists ( Archer, 2009 and Eagley and Wood, 2009) involved a great deal of speculation regarding potential mediators of the gender difference in physical aggression. Throughout this exchange, the only established empirical finding presented was that one plausible mediator – namely trait anger – exhibits no reliable gender difference whatsoever (see Archer (2004) for a meta-analytic review). As such, the current investigation was designed to examine the psychological processes mediating the gender difference in physical aggression. It is important to note that our goal was not to directly address the evolution versus social-learning debate (Archer, 2009 and Wood and Eagley, 2002). Nonetheless, we drew upon existing evolutionary and social-learning theories to inform our predictions. We specifically proposed that while angry affect does not mediate gender differences in physical aggression, revenge motivation does. We conducted three studies using both personality questionnaires and laboratory measures to test this hypothesis.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In conclusion, three studies using diverse measures and methodologies provided support for the contention that revenge motivation but not angry affect mediates gender differences in physical aggression. These studies provide some of the first evidence (that we are aware of) for a reliable mediator of this gender difference. Moreover, these studies suggest several important avenues for future research, including the role of various components of the reward system in male tendencies toward revenge motivation.