کمال گرایی دوتایی در روابط عاشقانه: پیش بینی رضایت از رابطه و تعهد بلند مدت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36622||2012||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4480 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 53, Issue 3, August 2012, Pages 300–305
Perfectionism affects all areas of life, including romantic relationships. However, little is known about how dyadic perfectionism (perfectionism in dyadic relationships) affects students’ romantic relationships. Focusing on two central aspects of dyadic perfectionism—partner-oriented perfectionism (perfectionistic expectations towards one’s partner) and partner-prescribed perfectionism (perceived perfectionistic expectations from one’s partner)—this study examined partner and actor effects of dyadic perfectionism in 58 university students and their partners (N = 116 participants) using multilevel analyses. Results showed significant partner and actor effects. Participants’ partner-oriented perfectionism had a positive effect on their partner’s partner-prescribed perfectionism and a negative effect on their own relationship satisfaction and longterm commitment. Participants’ partner-prescribed perfectionism also had a negative effect on their own relationship satisfaction. The findings show that dyadic perfectionism in students’ romantic relationships puts pressure on the partner and negatively affects the perception of the quality of the relationship regarding satisfaction and longterm commitment.
Perfectionism is defined by striving for flawlessness and setting exceedingly high standards for performance accompanied by tendencies for overly critical self-evaluations and concerns about negative evaluations by others (Flett and Hewitt, 2002 and Frost et al., 1990). According to Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) model, perfectionism has personal and social aspects, and three forms of perfectionism can be differentiated: self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism comprises a person’s internal beliefs that striving for perfection and being perfect are important; it is characterized by having perfectionistic expectations for oneself. In contrast, other-oriented perfectionism involves beliefs that it is important that others meet one’s high standards for performance; it is characterized by imposing one’s own perfectionistic standards onto others and having perfectionistic expectations of others. Finally, socially prescribed perfectionism comprises beliefs that high standards are expected by others and that acceptance by others is conditional on fulfilling these standards; it is characterized by individuals’ perceptions that others impose perfectionistic standards onto them and have perfectionistic expectations they must fulfill (Enns and Cox, 2002, Hewitt and Flett, 1991 and Hewitt and Flett, 2004). Regarding the two social forms of perfectionism of Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) model—other-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism—research has found that they show different qualities. Socially prescribed perfectionism is a maladaptive form of perfectionism. It forms part of “evaluative concerns perfectionism,” a superfactor of perfectionism combining aspects of perfectionism that are associated with negative characteristics, processes, and outcomes and psychological distress (Bieling et al., 2004, Frost et al., 1993 and Stoeber and Otto, 2006). In particular, socially prescribed perfectionism is associated with anxiety and depression (Hewitt & Flett, 2004), low satisfaction of life (Stoeber & Stoeber, 2009), and dissatisfaction with achievements (Stoeber & Yang, 2010). Moreover, regarding interpersonal characteristics, socially prescribed perfectionism is associated with interpersonal distress, interpersonal sensitivity, and low perceived social support (Hill et al., 1997, Hewitt and Flett, 2004 and Sherry et al., 2008). In contrast, other-oriented perfectionism is an ambivalent form of perfectionism. On the one hand, it forms part of “positive strivings perfectionism,” a superfactor of perfectionism combining aspects of perfectionism that are associated with positive characteristics, processes, and outcomes (Bieling et al., 2004, Frost et al., 1993 and Stoeber and Otto, 2006). For example, other-oriented perfectionism is associated with mastery in personal projects, enhanced test performance, and job engagement (Childs and Stoeber, 2010, Flett et al., 2009 and Hewitt and Flett, 2004). On the other hand, it is associated with negative interpersonal qualities such as hostility, blaming others, and low agreeableness (Hewitt and Flett, 1991, Hewitt and Flett, 2004 and Hill et al., 1997). Moreover, in a study with university students, other-oriented perfectionism was associated with interpersonal styles characterized as arrogant, dominant, calculating, and vindictive (Hill, Zrull, & Turlington, 1997).