زورگویی سایبر در (ADHD) و جمعیت سیندروم اسپرگر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36749||2011||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6192 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 5, Issue 3, July–September 2011, Pages 1201–1208
Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined the prevalence of both “traditional” bullying and cyber bullying in youth with ADHD and/or Asperger's Syndrome, and assessed the social, psychological, and health effects of bullying on participants. In addition, the study addressed the disconnect between parents’ understanding of their child's online experiences and their child's actual experiences in the virtual world. Forty-two children and youth reported high rates of bullying victimization through both traditional and electronic means. Individuals not involved with bullying showed greater levels of physical and psychological health relative to those involved with bullying. Parents and children disagreed on a number of issues related to use of the Internet, indicating the need for more clear communication between parents and their children. The results are discussed in terms of theory of mind, both for self and for others.
Instances of traditional bullying and cyber bullying are easy to find. One has only to turn the television on, read the newspaper, or talk to students in elementary or middle school. Traditional bullying is typically defined using three criteria: it is an aggressive behavior intended to harm another person; it is typically repeated over time; and, it occurs among individuals between whom there is a power imbalance (Kowalski et al., 2008 and Olweus, 1993). Bullying can take any of a number of different forms including verbal, physical, and relational, with verbal being the most common type of bullying experienced by both girls and boys (Nansel et al., 2001 and Olweus and Limber, 2010). Recent research by Dan Olweus and Susan Limber with over half a million participants who had completed the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (OBQ) found that 16.8% of the respondents reported being bullied “2–3 times a month” or more. Almost 10% reported bullying others “2–3 times a month” or more. Nansel et al. (2001) in a nationally representative survey of over 15,000 children in grades 6 through 10 similarly found that 17% reported having been victims of bullying “sometimes” or more often within a single school term. Nineteen percent indicated that they had bullied others “sometimes” or more often during the same time frame. Children who are bullied experience a range of negative physical and psychological effects, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation, poor grades, and negative physical health symptoms (Baumeister et al., 2008, Didden et al., 2009, Kowalski and Limber, 2010, Olweus, 1993, Shtayermman, 2007 and Wiener and Mak, 2009). Individuals who perpetrate bullying also experience negative consequences. They are more likely than individuals not involved in bullying to be involved in other types of antisocial and problematic behaviors, including fighting, vandalism, and poor academic performance (Kowalski et al., 2008, Nansel et al., 2001 and Olweus, 1993). In the extreme, individuals involved with bullying may take their own life. Suicides resulting from bullying were rated #2 in iVillages most notable events of 2010.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This is one of the first studies to examine cyber bullying among children and adolescents with ADHD and/or Asperger Syndrome. Given the high victimization prevalence rates of both types of bullying, additional research is needed not only with these populations but also examining cyber bullying among children and youth with other disabilities. Different patterns of symptomology may make youth more or less susceptible to traditional bullying and to cyber bullying. Children with disabilities that do not include social skills deficits may show lower rates of victimization than the youth respondents in the current study. Additional research is also needed investigating the most effective prevention and intervention efforts to use with children with disabilities. Such efforts are still in their infancy with non special needs populations, so there is yet a long way to go with special needs populations.