جلوگیری از زورگویی کودکان پرورشگاه در مدارس ما
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36755||2012||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4388 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 34, Issue 9, September 2012, Pages 1805–1809
Abstract This study examines the difficulties that the foster care child has with bullying in school, and it asks the question, “What is currently known about the bullying of foster children?” Furthermore, this article examines what the research believes can be done to solve these problems and improve the chances that a foster child will not be bullied in school. It asks and answers the questions, “What can schools do to help eliminate the bullying of foster children?” and “What can be concluded about how schools can help foster children improve their overall success in school?”
1. Introduction Anthony is a sixteen year old student who has been in foster care since he was twelve years old. He is now in the tenth grade and for the past three years he has been attending school in Brooklyn, New York, as a student in the New York City schools. In September, at the beginning of tenth grade, Anthony was placed in a new foster home in a suburban school district in Long Island, New York. On his first day in school, Anthony was sitting in the school cafeteria during his lunch period. While eating, he was verbally harassed by a group of boys. One of the boys in the group, the leader, was well-known as a bully by the teachers and administrators at the school. The boys did not leave Anthony alone. They called Anthony names and made comments about his appearance. They also threatened to beat him up after school and even brushed up against him several times to try to instigate a fight. At the end of the lunch period, Anthony got out of his seat and proceeded to leave the cafeteria. The boys did not let him leave and blocked his pathway out of the cafeteria. Anthony felt threatened and felt that it was necessary to protect himself from harm. He proceeded to hit the group leader several times on the face and body. The fight caused a disturbance and it attracted a crowd of watching students. Several teachers and administrators broke up the fight and took Anthony and the group of other boys to the Principal's office. Anthony and the group leader received a five day out of school suspension. The other boys received a three day suspension for instigating the fight. The boys were warned to stay away from each other outside of school during their suspension. During the five day suspension, however, Anthony received harassing telephone calls from the other boys, and on at least three occasions was followed by the leader and his friends when he went grocery shopping with his foster mother. The situation outside of school got so bad that Anthony confronted the leader and his gang at a local park. A fight took place and the police were called in to break up the disturbance. The police proceeded to notify school officials and both Anthony and the gang leader were advised by the Superintendent that they would be required to attend a Superintendent's Hearing to determine further punishment outside of school. At the Superintendent's Hearing, Anthony was advised that he would be suspended for the remainder of the quarter, about two months, and would receive home instruction. The hearing officer also told Anthony that he would be readmitted to school at the conclusion of the suspension. So, he never attended more that one day at his new high school. He received home instruction for the remainder of the school year and was placed the following year in an Alternate High School program in a neighboring school district. The gang leader also received home instruction; however, he was permitted to reenter the high school the next school year. Anthony's situation is not unlike those experienced by many other foster children. They are the new kids in school with no friends, no support system, and a distrust of teachers and other school officials. They generally live in what they often think is a temporary home and have no permanent roots in the community. Many foster children believe that returning to school is a terror. This study examines the difficulties that the foster care child has with bullying in school, and it asks the question, “What is currently known about the bullying of foster children?” Furthermore, this article examines what the research believes can be done to solve these problems and improve the chances that a foster child will not be bullied in school. It asks and answers the questions, “What can schools do to help eliminate the bullying of foster children?” and “What can be concluded about how schools can help foster children improve their overall success in school?” According to the Michigan Childhood Welfare Training Institute (2011), more than 150,000 children miss school every day because they are afraid of being bullied. In addition, more than half of all schoolchildren, in general, have witnessed a bullying incident, and three of every four students say bullying is a problem at their school. The authors point out that a child has a 50–50 chance of being involved with bullying in school, online, or in the community. Furthermore, victims of cyber-bullying, the authors state, are less likely to inform an adult due to fear of consequences, such as losing their cell phone or internet access. For foster children, the problems associated with bullying are far worse. Foster children may be particularly vulnerable to bullying because of racial differences, differences in family structure, perceived sexual orientation, disabilities, religious differences, and poor self-esteem. In general, schools treat their foster children with less respect and concern than other students in the school. School districts are very territorial and they see foster children as a transplanted problem. There is no sensitivity training for teachers and school administrators and they are slow to recognize the needs of children in care (Brighton & Hove, 2012). 1.1. Definition of bullying According to Webster's Dictionary (Webster, 2012), bullying is defined as an act of aggression that can cause embarrassment, pain or discomfort to another person. It can take many forms: physical, verbal, gestural, or as instances of extortion and exclusion. It is an abuse of power. Bullies, the definition states, engage in aggressive behavior which appears as abusive treatment, force, or coercion to affect others — particularly when habitual and involving an imbalance of power. Ericson (2001) maintains that the act of bullying may involve verbal harassment, physical assault, or coercion and may be directed persistently toward particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion, gender, sexuality, or ability. The “imbalance of power,” the Department of Justice says, may be social power and/or physical power. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a “target.” According to Dougherty and Wolff (2011), bullies are present in every school and community. The authors maintain that every child must deal with bullying and teasing from some standpoint either as the bully, the victim, or both, or the bystander who see a bullying incident. For children involved in the child welfare system, Dougherty and Wolff (2011) state, bullying and teasing may be not only a more prevalent, constant, and serious problem, but they may have fewer supports available to help them deal with these issues. The definition of bullying is very unclear, as no single definition covers all aspects of bullying (Aluedse, 2006). It has been called a headstrong, conscious desire to hurt another or put him/her under stress. This stress is created not only by what actually happens, but also by fear of what might happen. However, bullying is not the same as harassment or assault. It tends to involve many incidents that accumulate over time, rather than a single or a few incidents (Aluedse, 2006).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی