در حال انجام و آنلاین: کودکان و برداشت جوانان از زورگویی سایبری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36764||2009||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6881 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 31, Issue 12, December 2009, Pages 1222–1228
Abstract The use of online technology is exploding worldwide and is fast becoming a preferred method of interacting. While most online interactions are neutral or positive the Internet provides a new means through which children and youth are bullied. The aim of this grounded theory approach was to explore technology, virtual relationships and cyber bullying from the perspectives of students. Seven focus groups were held with 38 students between fifth and eighth grades. The participants considered cyber bullying to be a serious problem and some characterized online bullying as more serious than ‘traditional’ bullying because of the associated anonymity. Although the students depicted anonymity as integral to cyber bullying, the findings suggest that much of the cyber bullying occurred within the context of their social groups and relationships. Findings revealed five major themes: technology embraced at younger ages and becoming the dominant medium for communication; definitions and views of cyber bullying; factors unique to cyber bullying; types of cyber bullying; and telling adults. The findings highlight the complexity of the perceived anonymity provided by the Internet and how this may impact cyber bullying. The study offers greater awareness of the meanings of online relationships for children and youth.
. Introduction The exponential growth of electronic and computer based communication and information sharing during the last decade has drastically altered individuals' social interactions, learning strategies and choice of entertainment. In particular, there is a rapid rise of social networking on the Internet created by the growing access and use of electronic communication tools such as e-mail, websites, instant messaging, webcams, chat rooms, social networking sites, blogs, and text messages (Hinduja and Patchin, 2009, Palfrey and Gasser, 2008 and Schrock and Boyd, 2008). Indeed it has been suggested that the majority of youth view these electronic communication tools as “critical tools for their social life” (Kowalski, Limber, & Agatston, 2008, p. 2). The Internet provides innumerable possibilities for growth among children and youth, including benefits such as social support, identity exploration, and development of interpersonal and critical thinking skills, as well as educational benefits generated from expansive access to knowledge, academic support, and worldwide cross-cultural interactions (Gross, 2004, Jackson et al., 2006 and Valkenburg and Peter, 2007). Although most of the interactions are considered positive or neutral, more recent attention has focused on understanding cyber risks and the potential for abuse as youth spend more time online than ever before (Mitchell et al., 2003 and Shariff, 2009). Although traditional bullying has long been considered a school-based problem (Craig & Pepler, 2008), electronic communication tools are moving the discussion of bullying into the realm of the electronic information highway. Similar to traditional bullying, cyber bullying, also known as electronic bullying or online social cruelty (Kowalski et al., 2008), includes “willful and repeated harm inflicted” (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009, p. 5) towards another. What makes cyber bullying distinct is the use of electronic communication technology as the means through which to threaten, harass embarrass, or socially exclude (Hinduja and Patchin, 2009, Patchin and Hinduja, 2006 and Williams and Guerra, 2007). Cyber bullying can encompass the use of an electronic medium to sexually harass (Hinduja and Patchin, 2008 and Shariff and Johnny, 2007), including distributing unsolicited text or photos of a sexual nature or requesting sexual acts either online or offline (Schrock & Boyd, 2008). There has been a recent spike in the academic literature devoted to this new form of bullying (Berson et al., 2002, Hinduja and Patchin, 2009, Lenhart, 2007, Mitchell et al., 2003, Wolak et al., 2006, Ybarra and Mitchell, 2004a and Ybarra and Mitchell, 2004b) including large surveys to determine normative data on the prevalence and character of cyber bullying.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
6. Conclusion The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) (United Nations, 1998) identifies adults as responsible to protect children from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury or abuse. Children's and adolescents' regular and intense involvement in the cyber world and the rapid growth of cyber bullying signal an urgent call to action for prevention and protection of children and youth. Today's young wired generation increasingly relies on the Internet and other forms of technology for entertainment, information, personal help and advice, and importantly for social connection and interactions. It is essential that adults acknowledge, understand and accept the Internet and communication technology as a viable and real means of relating for children and youth in order to provide needed guidance and protection, and to keep children safe.