قربانی زورگویی، خودآسیبی و عوامل مرتبط در نوجوانان پسر ایرلندی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36766||2010||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6803 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Social Science & Medicine, Volume 71, Issue 7, October 2010, Pages 1300–1307
Abstract School bullying victimisation is associated with poor mental health and self harm. However, little is known about the lifestyle factors and negative life events associated with victimisation, or the factors associated with self harm among boys who experience bullying. The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of bullying in Irish adolescent boys, the association between bullying and a broad range of risk factors among boys, and factors associated with self harm among bullied boys and their non-bullied peers. Analyses were based on the data of the Irish centre of the Child and Adolescent Self Harm in Europe (CASE) study (boys n = 1870). Information was obtained on demographic factors, school bullying, deliberate self harm and psychological and lifestyle factors including negative life events. In total 363 boys (19.4%) reported having been a victim of school bullying at some point in their lives. The odds ratio of lifetime self harm was four times higher for boys who had been bullied than those without this experience. The factors that remained in the multivariate logistic regression model for lifetime history of bullying victimisation among boys were serious physical abuse and self esteem. Factors associated with self harm among bullied boys included psychological factors, problems with schoolwork, worries about sexual orientation and physical abuse, while family support was protective against self harm. Our findings highlight the mental health problems associated with victimisation, underlining the importance of anti-bullying policies in schools. Factors associated with self harm among boys who have been bullied should be taken into account in the identification of boys at risk of self harm.
Introduction Self harm is common among adolescents and a wide range of factors, including school bullying victimisation, are associated with self harm in this group (Evans et al., 2004 and Fergusson et al., 2003). Self harm is a major risk factor for repeated self harm and subsequent suicide (Gunnell et al., 2008 and Tidemalm et al., 2008), and so pathways to self harm among young men are of particular interest. Suicide is the leading cause of death in men aged 15–34 years in Ireland, with suicide rates among young men aged 15–19 in Ireland the third highest in the European Union (Eurostat, 2009). A gender paradox in suicidal behaviour has been described whereby suicide mortality is generally higher among men than women in Western cultures, despite lower prevalence of suicidal ideation and non-fatal suicidal behaviour (Canetto & Sakinofsky, 1998). Trends in Irish suicide are somewhat unique as suicide rates peak in young men, unlike most European countries where rates increase with age (Health Service Executive; National Suicide Review Group and Department of Health and Children, 2005). Rates of hospital-treated self harm also peak in men in the 20–24 years age group and have increased significantly in recent years (National Suicide Research Foundation, 2009). These national trends have led to a media, government and research focus on potential causes and prevention of suicide and self harm in young men (Department of Public Health, 2001). The psychological impact of particularly rapid social change in Ireland over the past three decades has been cited as a potential cause of the increase in suicide and self harm among young men (Cleary and Brannick, 2007 and Smyth et al., 2003). In particular, the doubling of suicide rates in the 1980s and 1990s has been associated with the undermining of traditional institutions and the transition to a wealthy, secular and individualist society. Increasing economic prosperity and personal freedom is generally beneficial, but less so for those with fewer resources at their disposal (Cleary and Brannick, 2007 and Eckersley and Dear, 2002). An Irish study of young men revealed a pessimistic view of Irish life, as 60% believed that “The lot of the average man is getting worse” (Begley, Chambers, Corcoran, & Gallagher, 2003). However, few causal links between indicators of change and male suicide have been identified (Cleary, 2005). The fact that men are disproportionately affected by suicide has been attributed to the fact that men are more reluctant than women to seek help for psychological problems (Cleary, 2005) and consequently have lower rates of diagnosis and treatment of depression (Rutz, von Knorring, Pihlgren, Rihmer, & Walinder, 1995). Canetto and Sakinofsky (1998) also reported evidence for the influence of “cultural scripts” which sometimes make suicide an acceptable course of action for Western men. However, in Ireland attitudes reflecting justification of suicide showed an upward trend in the 1980s and were reversed in the 1990s (Cleary & Brannick, 2007).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Results Prevalence of school bullying victimisation Bullying victimisation in the past year was reported by 4.3% of boys (Table 1). There was a correlation between age and prevalence of reporting bullying in the past year, with prevalence decreasing with increasing age (Spearman’s rho, p = 0.38). Lifetime history of school bullying victimisation was reported by almost one fifth of boys.