نتایج بهداشت و برچسب زنی خود به عنوان یک قربانی زورگویی در محل کار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36767||2011||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4830 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Volume 70, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 37–43
Abstract Objective This study investigated the extent to which self-labeling as a victim of workplace bullying mediates or moderates the relationship between exposure to bullying and the target's health outcomes. Methods Data were collected by means of anonymous self-report questionnaires. A total of 1024 employees in a transport organization participated in the study, among whom 116 self-labeled victims were identified. Exposure to bullying was measured by a short version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire, while the respondents' health outcomes were measured by the Bergen Health Checklist.
Introduction Workplace bullying has been described as an important occupational stressor, affecting approximately 5% to 30% of the European workforce  and . Workplace bullying is defined as a situation in which a person persistently is on the receiving end of negative actions from one or several others in a situation where the person exposed to the negative treatment has difficulties defending himself or herself against these actions  and . Bullying is therefore not about isolated events or conflicts but rather about aggressive behavior that repeatedly over time is directed toward one or more employees by one or more perpetrators. Furthermore, bullying appears not to be an either–or phenomenon but rather a gradually escalating process where the victim faces increasingly frequent and increasingly intense aggressive acts . Early in the process, the treatment may be indirect and subtle and therefore difficult for the target to recognize and confront. Thereafter, the negative behaviors tend to become more open and direct, often leaving the target humiliated, ridiculed, and increasingly isolated . Subsequently, the target becomes stigmatized and finds it more and more difficult to protect himself or herself against these increasingly harsh attacks. As a result, the target may suffer from a wide range of stress symptoms, which in turn may lead him or her to withdraw from both social and professional activities  and . A number of studies have shown that workplace bullying has detrimental effects on targets' health and well-being , , , ,  and . Among the observed individual consequences are psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, such as social isolation, social maladjustment, low self-esteem, sleep problems, concentration difficulties, chronic fatigue, depression, helplessness, anger, compulsions, anxiety, and despair ,  and . In a representative Norwegian sample of blue-collar and white-collar workers, bullying alone accounted for 13% of the variance in psychological complaints, 6% of the variance in musculoskeletal problems, and 8% of the variance in psychosomatic health complaints . Moreover, clinical observations of victims of bullying have revealed that bullying is associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and even suicidal thoughts  and . However, not all targets react in the same way or to the same degree  and —a fact that may be explained by the personality of the targets as personality differences have been shown to affect both stress exposure and stress reactivity . For example, a study of 433 employees in a Danish manufacturing company  showed that generalized self-efficacy acted as a moderator of the relationship between exposure to bullying behavior and psychological health complaints. In another study, both negative affectivity and positive affectivity were found to contribute significantly to the explained variance of PTSD symptoms, yet they did not interact with measures of bullying . Furthermore, Nielsen et al.  showed that sense of coherence , which is an individual disposition to view the world and the environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, offered protective benefits to targets exposed to low levels of bullying, whereas these benefits diminished as bullying became more severe. All these findings suggest that individual characteristics are important in determining how bullying is experienced and reacted to. However, they do not fully explain the mechanisms of how exposure to bullying may affect the targets' health and well-being.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conclusions So far, relatively few studies have focused on bullied targets' perceptions of their own misfortune. The present study has shown that self-labeling partly mediates and moderates the relationship between exposure to workplace bullying and the targets' health. However, independent of whether the experience is labeled as bullying or not, persistent and intense exposure to negative acts at work seems to have considerable harmful health effects on the targets. Bullying must therefore come to a stop; anti-bullying politics and tools that prevent bullying to occur are therefore indeed needed.