خشونت، زورگویی و پیشرفت تحصیلی: مطالعه نوجوانان 15 ساله و محیط مدرسه آنها
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36773||2013||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6688 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 37, Issue 4, April 2013, Pages 243–251
Abstract Objectives This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents’ school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to assess whether school-level influence is different for the adolescents exposed to violence and sexual abuse versus the adolescents not exposed to these forms of abuse.
Introduction Exposure to bullying, physical violence and sexual abuse may result in an array of negative outcomes, such as poor mental health, physical health and lower sense of well-being (Juvonen et al., 2000, Killen, 2009, Massie and Szajnberg, 2006, Miller-Perrin and Perrin, 2012, Olweus, 1994, Olweus, 1997 and Rigby, 2000). This study will focus on potential negative consequences of bullying, violence and sexual abuse in terms of academic achievement. Adolescents’ academic achievements are of great importance for prospective school choices and consequently a long term career. Previous research has found that bullied and abused children or adolescents perform worse in school compared with their nonabused peers (Crozier and Barth, 2005, Hoffman-Plotkin and Twentyman, 1984, Kendall-Tackett and Eckenrode, 1996, Leiter and Johnsen, 1997, Perez and Widom, 1994, Rothon et al., 2011, Slade and Wissow, 2007 and Veltman and Browne, 2001). Social learning theory, developmental theory and the traumagenic perspectives are some of the theories applied to explain this relationship (Leiter & Johnsen, 1994). Summarizing these theories, abuse may result in lack of support at home, disruptive behavior at school, poor self-esteem and low self-efficacy which in turn can affect the individual's academic performance. Recently it has been debated whether peer victimization and bullying should be perceived as parts of the same phenomenon. Some researchers argue that bullying should be understood as a sub-category of peer victimization, while others argue it should be understood as a separate phenomenon and not part of a broader definition of peer victimization (Finkelhor et al., 2012 and Turner et al., 2011). In our study, we focused on exploring the relationship between bullying in a school setting in relation to physical and sexual victimization that predominantly occur outside of school, although realizing the possible overlap between them. Negative consequences of physical violence and sexual abuse may differ depending on both the specific type of abuse and exposure to single- versus multiple traumatization (Arata et al., 2007, Finkelhor et al., 2007 and Killen, 2009). Earlier studies have focused on abuse as one category or on singular subtypes of abuse and their subsequent outcomes (Crozier and Barth, 2005 and Leiter and Johnsen, 1997). More recently, researchers have explored the potential impact of multiple types of abuse and their combinations (Finkelhor et al., 2007, Lau et al., 2005 and Pears et al., 2008). Less focus has been placed on how different combinations of individual exposure are related to school climate.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conclusion and implications Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the long-term consequences of exposure to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, additional multilevel studies are needed to investigate the consequences of bullying at a contextual level and across different ethnic groups. The present study reinforces the need to investigate simultaneously individual and contextual influences on students’ academic achievement, underlining the importance of developing preventive efforts involving all students at the school level.