دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 36802
عنوان فارسی مقاله

روابط بین درماندگی روانشناختی قربانی زورگویی و حذف صبحانه در پسران و دختران

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
36802 2015 6 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
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عنوان انگلیسی
Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Appetite, Volume 89, 1 June 2015, Pages 41–46

کلمات کلیدی
قلدری - صبحانه پرش - پریشانی روانی - تغذیه - نوجوانان
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله روابط بین درماندگی روانشناختی قربانی زورگویی و حذف صبحانه در پسران و دختران

چکیده انگلیسی

Abstract The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose–response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose–response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Introduction Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day and is associated with the nutritional well-being of children (Matthys, De, Bellemans, De, & De, 2007). Skipping breakfast or eating an inadequate breakfast may lead to dietary inadequacies that are rarely compensated for in other meals during the day (Nicklas, O'Neil, & Berenson, 1998). Youths who eat breakfast perform better academically and have higher diet quality than those who do not (Adolphus et al, 2013 and Rampersaud et al, 2005). They also have an enhanced cognitive and psychosocial function than those who do not eat breakfast (Cooper et al, 2011, Hoyland et al, 2009 and Rampersaud et al, 2005). Yet, breakfast is the most commonly skipped meal among children and adolescents (Story, Neumark-Sztainer, & French, 2002). Over the past decade, several interventions have encouraged children and adolescents to eat breakfast but very few have been successful (Kothe & Mullan, 2011). Most interventions did not include a psychosocial component (Kothe & Mullan, 2011). Identifying and tackling psychosocial determinants of breakfast skipping behaviour might be a key to improving breakfast consumption and nutritional well-being. Research studies have started implicating the experience of being bullied (also known as bullying victimization) on the development of unhealthy eating behaviours among adolescents (Farrow, Fox, 2011, Kaltiala-Heino et al, 2000 and Libbey et al, 2008), particularly skipping breakfast (Sampasa-Kanyinga, Roumeliotis, Farrow, & Shi, 2014). Bullying is usually defined as a specific form of aggression, which is intentional, repeated, and involves a disparity of power between the victim and perpetrators (Olweus, 1993). Bullying is a serious public health issue that has far-reaching consequences for victims, their families and peers, and their community. School bullying takes many forms and its impact on victims can vary greatly depending on the level of victimization. Sampasa-Kanyinga, Roumeliotis, Farrow, et al. (2014) documented an association between bullying and breakfast skipping among middle and high school students in Eastern Ontario (Canada), suggesting that the greater vulnerability of victims of cyberbullying and/or school based bullying may lead them to eat breakfast less often and that symptoms of depression appear to mediate these relationships, i.e. that being bullied may lead to psychological distress, which in turn lead the child or youth to start missing breakfast. However, it is unclear whether different forms of bullying affect breakfast eating behaviour differently and whether these effects vary with the intensity of bullying. It is also unclear whether the effect of bullying on breakfast consumption is different in boys and girls. It has been well documented that adolescent girls skip breakfast more often than boys (Rampersaud et al., 2005). While girls are well known to be bullied more often in traditional ways than boys (Craig et al., 2009), research findings on cyberbullying are inconsistent. Some studies noted that girls were more likely than boys to be victimized on-line (Dehue et al, 2008, Sampasa-Kanyinga et al, 2014 and Smith et al, 2008). This could be because cyberbullying is text-based, and girls tend to be more verbal than boys (Hinduja & Patchin, 2009). Other researchers, however, observed no significant gender differences (Smith et al., 2008). The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between bullying and missing breakfast, as well as the mediating role of psychological distress on this relationship. Improvements in this extended study include using a larger (province-wide survey) and representative sample of middle and high school children, examining the effects of gender, severity and forms of bullying (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber), and using a more global measure of psychological distress (Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Screener) ( Slade, Grove, & Burgess, 2011). We hypothesized that (1) the experience of being bullied leads to skipping breakfast, (2) psychological distress mediates that relationship, (3) the effect of bullying on breakfast skipping varies with the nature of the bullying, (4) there is a dose–response relationship between the severity of bullying and breakfast skipping, and (5) there is a gender difference.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Results Sample description Of the 5145 students (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) who were included in the analysis, 2286 (44.4%) were males and 2859 (55.6%) were females. The median age was 15 years (Q1 = 13 years, Q3 = 16 years). Table 1 presents sample characteristics by gender. Just over three-quarters of students were in high school. Overall, 44.2% of the participants reported breakfast skipping behaviour. Girls were more likely than boys to skip breakfast, to have higher psychological distress, and to report experiences of school bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Table 1. Sample characteristics, OSDUHS, Ontario, Canada, 2013. Sample Boys Girls p Value Total 5145 (100) 2286 (44.4) 2859 (55.6) Age .107  Mean (SD) 14.6 (1.9) 14.6 (1.9) 14.6 (1.8) Grade .972  7 to 8 2022 (23.6) 934 (23.6) 1088 (23.6)  9 to 12 3123 (76.4) 1352 (76.4) 1771 (76.4) Tobacco use .001  Yes 730 (18.5) 364 (21.0) 366 (15.9)  No 4415 (81.5) 1922 (79.0) 2493 (84.1) Alcohol use .135  Yes 3380 (70.8) 1520 (72.2) 1860 (69.2)  No 1765 (29.2) 766 (27.8) 999 (30.8) Cannabis use .007  Yes 1036 (26.5) 494 (29.4) 542 (23.4)  No 4109 (73.5) 1792 (70.6) 2317 (76.6) BMI <.001  Normal* 3581 (70.6) 1474 (65.7) 2107 (75.7)  Overweight 773 (15.6) 390 (17.9) 383 (13.1)  Obese 549 (10.2) 317 (13.0) 232 (7.3)  Not stated 242 (3.6) 105 (3.3) 137 (3.9) Subjective SES .008  Low 1404 (29.7) 610 (26.7) 794 (32.8)  High 3741 (70.3) 1676 (73.3) 2065 (67.2) Parental education .627  Mean (SD) 13.8 (2.8) 13.8 (2.8) 13.8 (2.9) Breakfast skipping <.001  Yes 2287 (44.2) 857 (37.8) 1430 (50.8)  No 2858 (55.8) 1429 (62.2) 1429 (49.2) Psychological distress <.001  Yes 1341 (26.1) 370 (17.2) 971 (35.5)  No 3804 (73.9) 1916 (82.8) 1888 (64.5) School bullying victimization .008  Yes 1338 (24.7) 555 (22.0) 783 (27.4)  No 3807 (75.3) 1731 (78.0) 2076 (2076) Cyberbullying victimization <.001  Yes 1052 (19.2) 356 (16.0) 696 (22.6)  No 4093 (80.8) 1930 (84.0) 2163 (77.4) Data are shown as No. (%) unless otherwise specified. Difference between boys and girls was tested by using Wald test. OSDUHS: Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey; BMI: Body mass index; SES: Socio-economic status. * Includes a small proportion of underweight. Table options Prevalence and associations Prevalence of different forms and level of exposure to bullying stratified by breakfast eating habits and gender are presented in Table 2. Among breakfast skippers, girls were more likely than boys to be verbally bullied (30.5% vs. 21.8%; p = .009) and to be cyberbullied 4 times or more (8.5% vs. 3.6; p = .005), whereas boys were more likely than girls to be victims of theft/vandalism (3.4% vs. 0.8%; p = .041) and to never have experienced cyberbullying (77.9% vs. 71.2%; p = .043). Table 2. Prevalence of forms of bullying and level of exposure, by breakfast eating habits and gender, Ontario, Canada, 2013. Breakfast skippers (n = 2287) Regular breakfast eaters (n = 2858) Boys (n = 857) Girls (n = 1430) p Value Boys (n = 1429) Girls (n = 1429) p Value n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Form of school bullying victimization .003 <.001  Physical 33 (1.2) 22 (1.6) 50 (2.5) 11 (0.5)  Verbal 180 (21.8) 433 (30.5) 252 (15.0) 324 (21.6)  Theft/vandalism 24 (3.4) 20 (0.8) 40 (2.7) 17 (1.1)  None 620 (73.6) 955 (67.1) 1087 (79.8) 1077 (76.8) Frequency of school bullying victimization .718 .054  Less than once a month 108 (13.0) 194 (14.3) 147 (8.2) 161 (11.8)  About once a month 43 (5.7) 93 (8.1) 60 (3.8) 88 (5.9)  About once a week 44 (5.3) 84 (5.4) 77 (4.7) 60 (3.4)  Daily or almost daily 39 (3.8) 69 (3.6) 37 (1.8) 34 (2.1)  Never 623 (72.1) 990 (68.6) 1108 (81.5) 1086 (76.7) Frequency of cyberbullying victimization .052 .240  Once 82 (10.1) 178 (11.2) 100 (6.4) 44 (3.3)  2 to 3 times 56 (8.4) 132 (9.0) 43 (3.8) 86 (5.1)  4 or more times 30 (3.6) 126 (8.5) 45 (2.1) 130 (7.9)  Never 689 (77.9) 994 (71.2) 1241 (87.7) 1169 (83.7) Table options Table 3 presents crude associations between forms and frequency of bullying and breakfast skipping among middle and high school children. Greater likelihoods of breakfast skipping were observed in victims of verbal (boys: crude odd ratio (cOR) = 1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16–2.15; girls: cOR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.22–2.15) and cyber bullying (boys: cOR = 2.01; 95% CI = 1.35–2.99; girls: cOR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.53–2.82). These associations remained significant after adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use, as shown in Table 4. The association between physical bullying and breakfast skipping in girls became apparent after adjusting for the above factors (aOR = 3.63; 95% CI = 1.01–13.11). There was a dose–response relationship between experience of both school bullying and cyberbullying and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders (p trend < .05). Table 3. Crude associations between forms and frequency of bullying victimization and breakfast skipping among middle and high school children, Ontario, Canada, 2013. Boys Girls cOR (95% CI) p Value cOR (95% CI) p Value Form of bullying victims  Physical 0.54 (0.24–1.20) .129 3.45 (0.99–12.01) .052  Verbal 1.58 (1.16–2.15) .002 1.62 (1.22–2.15) .001  Theft/vandalism 1.33 (0.63–2.83) .452 0.84 (0.27–2.55) .752  Cyber 2.01 (1.35–2.99) .001 2.08 (1.53–2.82) <.001 Frequency of school bullying victimization  None 1 1  Less than once a month 1.79 (1.22–2.61) .003 1.36 (0.96–1.92) .080  About once a month 1.70 (0.93–3.09) .084 1.53 (1.06–2.22) .023  About once a week 1.29 (0.70–2.40) .413 1.76 (0.98–3.17) .060  Daily or almost daily 2.39 (1.14–5.02) .022 1.88 (0.87–4.07) .111   p trend a .013 <.001 Frequency of cyberbullying victimization  Never 1 1  Once 1.76 (0.96–3.22) .066 1.68 (1.09–2.59) .018  2 to 3 times 2.49 (1.27–4.86) .008 2.09 (1.29–3.36) .003  4 or more times 1.91 (0.91–4.00) .084 3.02 (1.99–4.59) <.001   p trend a .015 <.001 a By Score test for trend in odds. Table options Table 4. Mediation of the relationship between cyberbullying or school bullying and breakfast skipping, Ontario, Canada, 2013. Path A Path B Path C Path C' Sobel test BV →PD PD→ BS BV→ BS BV →BS aOR (95% CI) p Value aOR (95% CI) p Value aORPD− (95% CI) p Value aORPD+ (95% CI) p Value Boys (N = 2428) School bullying victimization 3.16 (2.22–4.50) <.001 1.47 (1.01–2.15) .044 1.79 (1.32–2.42) <.001 1.67 (1.22–2.29) .002 <.001  Physical bullying 1.41 (0.62–3.21) .415 0.74 (0.34–1.62) .445 0.73 (0.33–1.60) .427  Verbal bullying 3.40 (2.39–4.83) <.001 1.60 (1.18–2.18) .003 1.47 (1.07–2.02) .016 <.001  Theft/vandalism 1.03 (0.47–2.26) .932 1.41 (0.66–3.02) .370 1.42 (0.65–3.12) .377 Cyberbullying victimization 1.94 (1.26–3.00) .003 1.55 (1.06–2.26) .023 1.96 (1.33–2.88) .001 1.88 (1.27–2.79) .002 <.001 Girls (N = 2988) School bullying victimization 3.03 (2.20–4.19) <.001 1.75 (1.27–2.41) .001 1.40 (1.03–1.89) .032 1.23 (0.90–1.67) .198  Physical bullying 6.11 (1.89–19.71) .003 3.63 (1.01–13.11) .049 3.01 (0.86–10.48) .084  Verbal bullying 3.46 (2.49–4.80) <.001 1.49 (1.13–1.98) .006 1.30 (0.97–1.74) .077  Theft/vandalism 1.93 (0.64–5.87) .242 0.60 (0.212–1.71) .339 0.56 (0.19–1.62) .284 Cyberbullying victimization 4.58 (3.17–6.61) <.001 1.63 (1.20–2.22) .002 1.83 (1.33–2.51) <.001 1.56 (1.13–2.15) .007 <.001 Note. All models control for grade, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use, BMI, subjective SES, parental education. BV: Bullying victimization; PD: Psychological distress; BS: Breakfast skipping; aOR: Adjusted odd ratio; aORPD−: Odds ratio from regression model unadjusted for psychological distress; aORPD+: Odds ratio from regression model adjusted for psychological distress. Table options Mediation analyses Table 4 presents results of the mediation analyses on the relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and breakfast skipping, separately by gender. Overall, psychological distress partially mediated the relationship between being bullied at school and skipping breakfast in both boys and girls. When examining the mediating role of psychological distress for individual measures of school bullying victimization, the first criterion was not met for physical bullying and theft/vandalism in boys and theft/vandalism in girls. As a result, mediation analyses were not explored further for these forms of school bullying victimization. Psychological distress was found to fully mediate the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediate the relationship between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. The Sobel test confirmed all partial mediation roles.

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