ایجاد تغییرات جوانان LGBTQQ:توسعه متحدان در برابر زورگویی از طریق عملکرد و گفت و گو
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36815||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9218 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 35, Issue 9, September 2013, Pages 1576–1586
Abstract Research has documented heterosexism and genderism facing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQQ) students in schools, especially as it relates to experiencing bullying and harassment. However, little research addresses anti-LGBTQQ bullying interventions, and no research has examined the use of youth-led performance and dialogue in cultivating anti-bullying behaviors among students. The present mixed-methods study assesses one such intervention led by a community-based LGBTQQ and allied youth group. Repeated measures general linear modeling demonstrates a positive impact of this intervention on middle and high school students' likelihood to intervene when witnessing anti-LGBTQQ harassment and confidence to successfully do so, particularly for White students. Qualitative findings demonstrate barriers to intervention and decision-making processes of youth when intervening. Results suggest the importance of these interventions in empowering LGBTQQ youth to effect change in their schools.
1. Introduction Oppressive systems, such as heterosexism, genderism,1 homophobia, and transphobia operate throughout society and profoundly shape the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQQ)2 youth. For youth, school settings are often significant sites of marginalization as a result of these systems, as well as potential spaces for resistance and working toward transformation, justice, and equality (Wernick, Woodford, & Siden, 2010). In schools, heterosexism and genderism are often experienced through direct homophobic/transphobic verbal and physical violence (Centers for Disease Control, Prevention, 2011, May 19, Harris Interactive and GLSEN, 2005, Kosciw et al., 2010 and Walls et al., 2008), subtle forms of mistreatment and discrimination (Nadal & Griffin, 2011), and overall homo/bi/queer-phobic and transphobic environments that erase and invalidate LGBTQQ experiences and perpetuate homo/bi/queer/trans-phobic cultural norms (Nadal & Griffin, 2011; Riot Youth, 2009). These realities negatively impact LGBTQQ students as individuals and as a community, as well as school communities as a whole (Poteat et al., 2011 and Swearer et al., 2008). Experiencing anti-LGBTQQ discrimination has been linked to higher incidence of negative mental health outcomes including suicide, substance abuse, and risky sexual behavior (Almeida et al., 2009, Bontempo and D'Augelli, 2002 and Poteat and Espelage, 2007). Anti-LGBTQQ cultural and institutional norms and expectations for young people impede the development of positive self-identity and create hostile learning environments (Dupper and Meyer-Adams, 2002, Graham, 2012 and MacGillivray, 2004). Moreover, negative outcomes for heterosexual students are related to experiencing heterosexist harassment based on a perceived LGBTQQ identity or from witnessing heterosexist harassment (Silverschanz, Cortina, Konik, & Magley, 2008). For instance, anti-LGBTQQ harassment often relies on the enforcement of strict gender norms, which can damage straight/cisgender3 individuals as well (Kimmel, 2001 and Rich, 1980). Creating safer and more inclusive school environments is critical for the wellbeing and learning of all students. However, many communities continue to struggle with how to address the needs of LGBTQQ individuals, especially within public schools (Ciardullo, 2005 and MacGillivray, 2004). Sexual and gender minority youth report that inclusive school curriculum, resources in schools, teacher/administrator willingness to support LGBTQQ students, cultivating straight/cisgender allies, and effective sanctions for discrimination are all important for meeting the social and emotional needs of LGBTQQ students (Currie et al., 2012, Davis et al., 2009, McGuire et al., 2010, Riot Youth, 2009 and Sadowski et al., 2009). Given the diversity of challenges faced by LGBTQQ students across the country, strategies are needed that are specific to LGBTQQ youth and also adaptable to multiple contexts. Such strategies should empower LGBTQQ youth (Lee, 2002 and Russell et al., 2009), engage straight/cisgender youth and develop them as allies (Davis et al., 2009, Goodenow et al., 2006 and Wernick et al., 2013a), foster open discussions between youth and adults in schools to address heteronormative environments, harassment, and conflict (Currie et al., 2012, Guerra and Phillips Smith, 2005 and Sadowski et al., 2009), and address institutional factors, including school culture and climate (Currie et al., 2012, Dessel, 2010 and Stephan and Vogt, 2004). Using a pre-experimental, one-group, pretest–posttest design, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of a programmatic intervention developed and administered by LGBTQQ youth that seeks to increase knowledge and awareness about homophobia and transphobia as well as students' likelihood and confidence to intervene when offensive language or actions target LGBTQQ students in schools.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5. Conclusion Given the persistence of anti-LGBTQQ harassment, bullying, and negative climate in schools, this study has demonstrated one type of programmatic intervention that can be useful in addressing these issues. Viewing a performance and participating in a post-performance dialogue led by LGBTQQ youth about issues related to identity, bullying, and intervention was related to an increase in both likelihood to intervene around anti-LGBTQQ bullying and the confidence to successfully do so. Individuals and communities should consider the use of creative storytelling, performances and dialogic communication led by peers in addressing specific forms of identity-based bullying and other forms of violence