اضطراب اجتماعی و مقایسه اجتماعی:پیوندهای افتراقی با نگرش های محدود و بلومیک در میان زنان غیر بالینی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36927||2003||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Eating Behaviors, Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2003, Pages 257–264
Abstract This study investigated the relationship of two social psychological constructs (social anxiety and social comparison) with bulimic and restrictive eating attitudes among nonclinical women. Eighty young women completed a measure of social anxiety (the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, FNE), a measure of social comparison (the Iowa–Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure, INCOM), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The results indicate a differential link between the two different social processes and the nature of eating psychopathology. Specifically, heightened social anxiety predicted drive for thinness, while levels of social comparison predicted bulimic attitudes. The findings support a model where the two social processes are each associated with different patterns of eating pathology.
1. Introduction Numerous studies have considered the role of broad social factors in the aetiology and maintenance of eating problems (e.g., Brooks, LeCouteur, & Hepworth, 1998). Such work has begun to elucidate the mechanisms by which these social pressures are transmitted to the individual (e.g., Edmunds and Hill, 1999 and Feunekes et al., 1998). These preliminary studies have focused almost exclusively on the impact of weight- and shape-related information (e.g., criticism regarding appearance) upon eating behaviours (e.g., Thompson, Coovert, & Stormer, 1999). In addition, aspects of eating psychopathology are not differentiated in these socially focused studies despite recent research distinguishing socially validated attitudes (i.e., body dissatisfaction and restriction) from socially stigmatised attitudes (i.e., bulimia) (e.g., Meyer and Waller, 2001 and Paxton et al., 1999). A small number of studies have considered how an individual's level of vulnerability to societal pressure can be a crucial factor in determining who will develop an eating disorder (e.g., Stice, 1994 and Wertheim et al., 1997). In addition to the specific impact of weight- and shape-related criticism (e.g., Thompson et al., 1999), it has been suggested that women with eating disorders generally experience more social anxiety than controls. In particular, heightened fears of negative evaluation have been found within groups of eating-disordered individuals (e.g., Hinrichsen, Waller, & Wright, 2001). However, whilst social anxiety may be involved in the transmission of disturbed eating attitudes in general, it is likely that these negative evaluation fears may be relevant only to those eating behaviours deemed socially desirable (i.e., drive for thinness and dissatisfaction with one's shape and weight) (Paxton et al., 1999). An alternative mechanism underpinning the transmission of social pressures to the individual involves less overt familial and peer influences. Recent research suggests that the process of social comparison is a critical mediator between teasing by peers and development of poor body image and eating disturbance (Thompson et al., 1999). Support for social comparison as a transmission mechanism in the eating disorders is limited. However, Gibbons and Buunk (1999) have isolated qualities shared by individuals who are likely to engage in social comparison. Most of these characteristics involve uncertainty about the self, such as unstable self-concepts and low self-esteem (e.g., Campbell, 1990 and Wayment and Taylor, 1995), all of which are features commonly seen in the eating disorders (e.g., Williams et al., 1993). In summary, preliminary links have been found between restrictive psychopathology and social anxiety, and there is some suggestion that social comparison might be involved in the development of eating psychopathology. In light of this, the current study has two aims: (1) to examine whether links between social anxiety and eating characteristics are specific to restrictive pathology (i.e., socially validated attitudes) and (2) to empirically test the relationship between general social comparison processes and eating psychopathology. In keeping with the model proposed above, it is hypothesised that socially validated eating attitudes (drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) will be associated with heightened levels of social anxiety. It is also predicted that a general tendency towards social comparison will be associated with relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. However, because links have previously been found between social anxiety and depression, and depression and eating psychopathology (e.g., Fava et al., 1997 and Lepine and Pelissolo, 2000), the current study will determine whether any links between eating attitudes and social processes are accounted for by depression.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
3. Results 3.1. Characteristics of the sample The women's mean scores on the EDI were Drive for thinness=6.56 (S.D.=6.34, range=0–21), Body dissatisfaction=13.3 (S.D.=8.23, range=0–27), and Bulimia=1.98 (S.D.=3.25, range=0–16). Their mean score on the FNE was 16.3 (S.D.=6.74, range=2–30). Their mean scores on the INCOM were INCOMab=19.6 (S.D.=4.31, range=6–28) and INCOMop=19.9 (S.D.=2.78, range=14–25). Finally, their mean score on the BDI was 6.74 (S.D.=8.99, range=0–40). The scores for all four measures were similar to those previously reported for nonclinical populations (e.g., Beck et al., 1961, Garner, 1991, Gibbons and Buunk, 1999 and Watson and Friend, 1969). 3.2. Links between social process, depression, and eating psychopathology Table 1 shows the correlations of FNE and INCOM scores with BDI and EDI scores. There were positive, reliable associations of both FNE and INCOM scores with all three EDI subscales (Drive for thinness, DT; Body dissatisfaction, BD; and Bulimia, B). In addition, the BDI was positively correlated with all EDI scales and with the two measures of social function. These results indicate that high levels of social comparison and social anxiety are linked with unhealthy eating-related attitudes. However, the positive correlations between depression and all four variables indicate that any associations could be a product of the effects of depression. Table 1. Associations (one-tailed Pearson's r) of EDI and BDI scores with FNE, INCOMop, and INCOMab scores EDI DT BD B BDI FNE .43** .41** .27** .50** INCOMop .16 .04 .29** .16 INCOMab .24* .26** .21* .21* ** P<.01. * P<.05. Table options 3.3. Differential links between social process and eating psychopathology In order to determine the most parsimonious model linking the two social processes with eating attitudes, whilst taking account of the effects of depression, a series of multiple regression analyses were performed. Fig. 1 shows the predictive effect of FNE, INCOMab, INCOMop, and BDI on Drive for thinness, Body dissatisfaction, and Bulimia. In the three overall models, there was a significant predictive effect for each of the three EDI subscales. Model outlining the predictive effect of social anxiety and social comparison on ... Fig. 1. Model outlining the predictive effect of social anxiety and social comparison on EDI subscales. Figure options When considering the individual predictors of each EDI scale, a clear pattern emerged. First, when predicting Drive for thinness, there were significant individual effects of FNE and BDI scores. Second, in relation to Body dissatisfaction, only the BDI score had significant individual predictive power. Finally, in the context of Bulimia, there were significant individual effects of the INCOMop and the BDI. In summary, when controlling for depression, social anxiety was still a significant predictor of Drive for thinness, although the use of social comparison was no longer significant. In addition, the bivariate associations between social processes and body dissatisfaction (as shown in Table 1) were no longer significant once the effects of depression were taken into account. Finally, with depression scores entered into the model, social comparison concerning others opinions remained a significant predictor of bulimic attitudes, while social anxiety scores did not.